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Ludwig Wittgenstein. G. E. Moore. Bertrand Russell. Russell led the British "revolt against idealism" in the early 20th century.[58] He is considered one of the founders of analytic philosophy along with his predecessor Gottlob Frege, colleague G.

Bertrand Russell

E. Analytic philosophy. Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a style of philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century.

Analytic philosophy

In the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Scandinavia, Australia, and New Zealand, the vast majority of university philosophy departments identify themselves as "analytic" departments.[1] The term "analytic philosophy" can refer to: A broad philosophical tradition[2][3] characterized by an emphasis on clarity and argument (often achieved via modern formal logic and analysis of language) and a respect for the natural sciences.[4][5][6]The more specific set of developments of early 20th-century philosophy that were the historical antecedents of the broad sense: e.g., the work of Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, G.

José Guilherme Merquior. José Guilherme Merquior (April 22, 1941 – January 7, 1991) was a Brazilian diplomat, academic, writer, literary critic and philosopher.

José Guilherme Merquior

Biography[edit] He was a prolific writer, and member of the Academia Brasileira de Letras (the Brazilian Academy of Letters). He had a doctorate in sociology from the London School of Economics, which was directed by Ernest Gellner. Henri Bergson. He was awarded the 1927 Nobel Prize in Literature "in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented".[2] In 1930, France awarded him its highest honour, the Grand-Croix de la Legion d'honneur.

Henri Bergson

Biography[edit] Overview[edit] Bergson was born in the Rue Lamartine in Paris, not far from the Palais Garnier (the old Paris opera house) in 1859. His father, the pianist Michał Bergson, was of a Polish Jewish family background (originally bearing the name Bereksohn). His mother, Katherine Levison, daughter of a Yorkshire doctor, was from an English and Irish Jewish background. Henri Bergson's family lived in London for a few years after his birth, and he obtained an early familiarity with the English language from his mother. Gottlob Frege. Life[edit] Childhood (1848–69)[edit] Frege was born in 1848 in Wismar, in the state of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (which is today part of the German federal state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern).

Gottlob Frege

His father Carl (Karl) Alexander Frege (3 August 1809 – 30 November 1866) was the co-founder and headmaster of a girls' high school until his death. After Carl's death, the school was led by Frege's mother Auguste Wilhelmine Sophie Frege (born Bialloblotzky of Polish descent, 12 January 1815 – 14 October 1898). Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi. Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi (25 January 1743 – 10 March 1819) was an influential German philosopher, literary figure, socialite, and the younger brother of poet Johann Georg Jacobi.

Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi

He is notable for coining the term nihilism and promoting it as the prime fault of Enlightenment thought particularly in the philosophical systems of Baruch Spinoza, Immanuel Kant, Johann Fichte and Friedrich Schelling.[1] Instead of speculative reason, he advocated Glaube (variously translated as faith or "belief") and revelation. In this sense, Jacobi anticipated present-day writers who criticize secular philosophy as relativistic and dangerous for religious faith. Karl Leonhard Reinhold. Karl Leonhard Reinhold (26 October 1757 – 10 April 1823) was an Austrian philosopher.

Karl Leonhard Reinhold

He was the father of Ernst Reinhold, also a philosopher. Life[edit] Reinhold was born in Vienna. At the age of fourteen he entered the Jesuit college of St. Western philosophy. Heraclitus. Heraclitus of Ephesus (/ˌhɛrəˈklaɪtəs/;[1] Greek: Ἡράκλειτος ὁ Ἐφέσιος, Hērákleitos ho Ephésios; c. 535 – c. 475 BCE) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, a native of the Greek city Ephesus, Ionia, on the coast of Asia Minor.

Heraclitus

Parmenides. Parmenides of Elea (/pɑrˈmɛnɨdiːz əv ˈɛliə/; Ancient Greek: Παρμενίδης ὁ Ἐλεάτης; fl. 5th century BCE) was an ancient Greek philosopher born in Elea, a Greek city on the southern coast of Magna Graecia.

Parmenides

Edmund Husserl. Although born into a Jewish family, Husserl was baptized as a Lutheran in 1886.

Edmund Husserl

He studied mathematics under Karl Weierstrass and Leo Königsberger, and philosophy under Franz Brentano and Carl Stumpf. Gottlob Ernst Schulze. In Göttingen, he advised his student Arthur Schopenhauer to concentrate on the philosophies of Plato and Kant. This advice had a strong influence on Schopenhauer's philosophy. In the winter semester of 1810 and 1811, Schopenhauer studied both psychology and metaphysics under Schulze.[2] Schelling. Martin Heidegger. Martin Heidegger (German: [ˈmaɐ̯tiːn ˈhaɪdɛɡɐ]; 26 September 1889 – 26 May 1976) was a German philosopher, widely seen as a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition, particularly within the fields of existential phenomenology and philosophical hermeneutics. From his beginnings as a Catholic academic, he developed a groundbreaking and widely influential philosophy.

His relationship with Nazism has been a controversial and widely debated subject. For Heidegger, the things in lived experience always have more to them than what we can see; accordingly, the true nature of being is “withdrawal”. The interplay between the obscured reality of things and their appearance in what he calls the “clearing” is Heidegger's main theme. Johann Gottlieb Fichte. Jacques Derrida. Karl Marx. Michael E. Rosen. Immanuel Kant. Friedrich Nietzsche. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (/ˈniːtʃə/[42] or /ˈnitʃi/;[43] German: [ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈniːt͡sʃə]; 15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philologist, philosopher, cultural critic, poet and composer.

Simon Glendinning. Simon Glendinning is an English philosopher currently teaching in the European Institute at the London School of Economics. He is Director of the Forum for European Philosophy. Glendinning's work is characterised by the way in which it engages with thinkers and themes from both the 'analytic' and 'continental' traditions in philosophy. His first book, On Being With Others: Heidegger-Wittgenstein-Derrida, is an analysis of the problem of other minds. His later writings are largely concerned with the phenomenological tradition in philosophy. In the Name of Phenomenology is a detailed study of that tradition. His father is the Goya specialist, Nigel Glendinning. Babette Babich. Babette E.

Søren Kierkegaard. Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (/ˈsɔrən ˈkɪərkəɡɑrd/ or /ˈkɪərkəɡɔr/; Danish: [ˈsɶːɐn ˈkiɐ̯ɡəɡɒːˀ] ( Friedrich Engels. Socrates. Plato. Aristotle. Aristophanes. Stoicism. Logic. Ethics. Archytas. Sovereignty. Thomas Hobbes. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Isaac Newton. Marxism.

Adam Smith. David Hume. John Locke.