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Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian - British philosopher who worked primarily in logic , the philosophy of mathematics , the philosophy of mind , and the philosophy of language . [ 1 ] He was professor in philosophy at the University of Cambridge from 1939 until 1947. [ 2 ] In his lifetime, he published just one book review, one article, a children's dictionary, and the 75-page Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (1921). [ 3 ] In 1999, his posthumously published Philosophical Investigations (1953) was ranked as the most important book of 20th-century philosophy by the Baruch Poll, standing out as "...the one crossover masterpiece in twentieth-century philosophy, appealing across diverse specializations and philosophical orientations". [ 4 ] Philosopher Bertrand Russell described him as "the most perfect example I have ever known of genius as traditionally conceived, passionate, profound, intense, and dominating". [ 5 ]
George Edward Moore OM , FBA (4 November 1873 – 24 October 1958) was an English philosopher . He was, with Bertrand Russell , Ludwig Wittgenstein , and (before them) Gottlob Frege , one of the founders of the analytic tradition in philosophy. Along with Russell, he led the turn away from idealism in British philosophy, and became well known for his advocacy of common sense concepts, his contributions to ethics, epistemology, and metaphysics, and "his exceptional personality and moral character." [ 1 ] He was Professor of Philosophy at the University of Cambridge , highly influential among (though not a member of) the Bloomsbury Group , and the editor of the influential journal Mind . He was elected a fellow of the British Academy in 1918.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell , OM , FRS [ 1 ] (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher , logician , mathematician , historian , and social critic . [ 2 ] At various points in his life he considered himself a liberal , a socialist , and a pacifist , but he also admitted that he had never been any of these in any profound sense. [ 3 ] He was born in Monmouthshire , into one of the most prominent aristocratic families in Britain. [ 4 ] Russell led the British "revolt against idealism " in the early 20th century. [ 5 ] He is considered one of the founders of analytic philosophy along with his predecessor Gottlob Frege and his protégé Ludwig Wittgenstein . He is widely held to be one of the 20th century's premier logicians. [ 2 ] He co-authored, with A.
Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy ) is a generic term for a style of philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century. In the United Kingdom , United States , Canada , Scandinavia , Australia , and New Zealand , the vast majority of university philosophy departments identify themselves as "analytic" departments. [ 1 ] The term "analytic philosophy" can refer to:
José Guilherme Merquior (April 22, 1941 – January 7, 1991) was a Brazilian diplomat, academic, writer, literary critic and philosopher. [ edit ] Biography He was a prolific writer, and member of the Academia Brasileira de Letras (the Brazilian Academy of Letters). He had a doctorate in sociology from the London School of Economics , which was directed by Ernest Gellner .
Henri-Louis Bergson ( French: [bɛʁksɔn] 18 October 1859 – 4 January 1941) was a major French philosopher , influential especially in the first half of the 20th century. Bergson convinced many thinkers that immediate experience and intuition are more significant than rationalism and science for understanding reality . He was awarded the 1927 Nobel Prize in Literature "in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented". [ 2 ] In 1930, France awarded him its highest honour, the Grand-Croix de la Legion d'honneur . [ edit ] Biography [ edit ] Overview Bergson was born in the Rue Lamartine in Paris, not far from the Palais Garnier (the old Paris opera house) in 1859 (the year in which France emerged as a victor in the Second Italian War of Independence , and in the month before the publication of Charles Darwin 's On the Origin of Species ).
Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege ( German: [ˈɡɔtloːp ˈfreːɡə] ; 8 November 1848 – 26 July 1925) was a German mathematician , logician and philosopher . He is considered to be one of the founders of modern logic and made major contributions to the foundations of mathematics. He is generally considered to be the father of analytic philosophy , for his writings on the philosophy of language and mathematics. While he was mainly ignored by the intellectual world when he published his writings, Giuseppe Peano (1858–1932) and Bertrand Russell (1872–1970) introduced his work to later generations of logicians and philosophers. [ edit ] Life [ edit ] Childhood (1848–69)
Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi (25 January 1743 – 10 March 1819) was an influential German philosopher , literary figure , socialite and the younger brother of poet Johann Georg Jacobi . He is notable for coining the term nihilism and promoting it as the prime fault of Enlightenment thought particularly in the philosophical systems of Baruch Spinoza , Immanuel Kant , Johann Fichte and Friedrich Schelling . [ 1 ] Instead of speculative reason , he advocated Glaube (variously translated as faith or "belief") and revelation . In this sense, Jacobi anticipated present-day writers who criticize secular philosophy as relativistic and dangerous for religious faith.
Karl Leonhard Reinhold (26 October 1757 – 10 April 1823) was an Austrian philosopher . He was the father of Ernst Reinhold , also a philosopher. [ edit ] Life Reinhold was born in Vienna . At the age of fourteen he entered the Jesuit college of St.
European philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western or Occidental world . Historically, the term was recently invented to refer to the philosophical thinking of Western civilization , beginning with Greek philosophy in ancient Greece , and eventually covering a large area of the globe. The word philosophy itself originated in ancient Greece: philosophia (φιλοσοφία), literally, "the love of wisdom" (φιλεῖν — philein "to love" and σοφία - sophia, "wisdom" ). [ edit ] Origins The scope of philosophy in the ancient understanding, and the writings of (at least some of) the ancient philosophers , were all intellectual endeavors.
Heraclitus of Ephesus ( Greek : Ἡράκλειτος ὁ Ἐφέσιος — Hērákleitos ho Ephésios ; c. 535 – c. 475 BCE) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher , a native of the Greek city Ephesus , Ionia , on the coast of Asia Minor . He was of distinguished parentage. Little is known about his early life and education, but he regarded himself as self-taught and a pioneer of wisdom.
Parmenides of Elea ( pron.: / p ɑr ˈ m ɛ n ɨ d iː z ə v ˈ ɛ l i ə / ; Ancient Greek : Παρμενίδης ὁ Ἐλεάτης ; fl. early 5th century BCE) was an ancient Greek philosopher born in Elea , a Greek city on the southern coast of Italy . He was the founder of the Eleatic school of philosophy . The single known work of Parmenides is a poem , On Nature , which has survived only in fragmentary form. In this poem, Parmenides describes two views of reality .
Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl ( German: [ˈhʊsɐl] ; April 8, 1859 – April 26, 1938) was a philosopher and mathematician and the founder of the 20th century philosophical school of phenomenology . He broke with the positivist orientation of the science and philosophy of his day, yet he elaborated critiques of historicism and of psychologism in logic. Not limited to empiricism , but believing that experience is the source of all knowledge, he worked on a method of phenomenological reduction by which a subject may come to know directly an essence. Although born into a Jewish family, Husserl was baptized as a Lutheran in 1886.
Gottlob Ernst Schulze (23 August 1761 – 14 January 1833) was born in Heldrungen (modern-day Thuringia , Germany ). Schulze was a professor at Wittenberg , Helmstedt , and Göttingen . [ 1 ] His most influential book was Aenesidemus , a skeptical polemic against Immanuel Kant 's Critique of Pure Reason and Karl Leonhard Reinhold 's Philosophy of the Elements . In Göttingen, he advised his student Arthur Schopenhauer to concentrate on the philosophies of Plato and Kant.
Martin Heidegger ( German: [ˈmaɐ̯tiːn ˈhaɪdɛɡɐ] ; September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) was a German philosopher known for his existential and phenomenological explorations of the "question of Being ". [ 4 ] His best known book, Being and Time , is considered one of the most important philosophical works of the 20th century. [ 5 ] In it and later works, Heidegger maintained that our way of questioning defines our nature. But philosophy, Western Civilization's chief way of questioning, had in the process of philosophizing lost sight of the being it sought. Finding ourselves "always already" fallen in a world of presuppositions, we lose touch with what being was before its truth became "muddled". [ 6 ] As a solution to this condition, Heidegger advocated a return to the practical being in the world, allowing it to reveal, or "unconceal" itself as concealment. [ 7 ]