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Neural Crest cells

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Gap junction - Wikipedia. A gap junction may also be called a nexus or macula communicans.

Gap junction - Wikipedia

When found in neurons or nerves it may also be called an electrical synapse. While an ephapse has some similarities to a gap junction, by modern definition the two are different. One gap junction channel is composed of two connexons (or hemichannels), which connect across the intercellular space.[4][5][6] Gap junctions are analogous to the plasmodesmata that join plant cells.[7] Gap junctions occur in virtually all tissues of the body, with the exception of adult fully developed skeletal muscle and mobile cell types such as sperm or erythrocytes. Gap junctions, however, are not found in simpler organisms such as sponges and slime molds. L-DOPA - Wikipedia. Medical use[edit] In addition, L-DOPA, co-administered with a peripheral DDCI, has been investigated as a potential treatment for restless leg syndrome.

L-DOPA - Wikipedia

However, studies have demonstrated "no clear picture of reduced symptoms".[8] Neuromelanin - Wikipedia. 5,6-dihydroxyindole, the monomer out of which neuromelanin polymers are formed.

Neuromelanin - Wikipedia

Neuromelanin (NM) is a dark pigment found in the brain which is structurally related to melanin. It is a polymer of 5,6-dihydroxyindole monomers. [citation needed] Neuromelanin is expressed in large quantities in catecholaminergic cells of the substantia nigra pars compacta and locus coeruleus, giving dark color to the structures.[1] Importance in humans[edit] Neuromelanin is found in higher concentrations among humans than in other primates.[1] Neuromelanin-containing neurons in the substantia nigra undergo neurodegeneration during Parkinson's disease.

Synthetic pathways[edit] Neuromelanin is directly biosynthesized from L-DOPA, precursor to dopamine, by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and aromatic acid decarboxylase (AADC). Related disease[edit] Motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease are caused by cell death in the substantia nigra, which may be partly due to oxidative stress.

Meningeal lymphatic vessels - Wikipedia. The meningeal lymphatic vessels (or meningeal lymphatics) are a recently discovered network of conventional lymphatic vessels located parallel to the dural sinuses and meningeal arteries of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS).

Meningeal lymphatic vessels - Wikipedia

As a part of the lymphatic system, the meningeal lymphatics are responsible for draining immune cells, small molecules, and excess fluid from the CNS and into the deep cervical lymph nodes.[1][2] Currently, the role that the meningeal lymphatics play in neurological disease is yet to be explored. However, there is some speculation that they may contribute to autoimmune and inflammatory diseases of the CNS due to their role in connecting the immune and nervous systems. Background[edit] In peripheral organs, lymphatic vessels are responsible for conducting lymph between different parts of the body. Cardiac neural crest complex - Wikipedia. The cardiac neural crest complex is a form of neural crest.[1] Derivation and migration[edit] The cardiac neural crest develops from the dorsal neural tube.[2] It overlaps the vagal neural crest and migrates to populate the pharyngeal arches 3, 4 and 6 (producing structures in the head) and to the heart, forming connective tissue that separates the great vessels of the heart.

Cardiac neural crest complex - Wikipedia

Notch2 plays an important role in development.[3] Other migration locations[edit] Anterior of the aorta to become the four pre-aortic ganglia: (celiac ganglion, superior mesenteric ganglion, inferior mesenteric ganglion and aortical renal ganglia). Enteric nervous system - Wikipedia. Truncal neural crest - Wikipedia. The truncal neural crest or trunk neural crest is a form of neural crest.[1] The trunk neural crest lies between the vagal and sacral neural crest and gives rise to two groups of cells.

Truncal neural crest - Wikipedia

One group migrates dorsolateral and populates the skin, forming pigment cells and the other migrates ventrolateral through the anterior sclerotome to become the epinephrine-producing cells of the adrenal gland and the neurons of the sympathetic nervous system. Cranial neural crest - Wikipedia. File:CG Heart.gif. Neural crest cells are a temporary group of cells unique to vertebrates that arise from the embryonic ectoderm cell layer, and in turn give rise to a diverse cell lineage—including melanocytes, craniofacial cartilage and bone, smooth muscle, peripheral and enteric neurons and glia.[1]