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Recurrent neural network

Recurrent neural network
A recurrent neural network (RNN) is a class of neural network where connections between units form a directed cycle. This creates an internal state of the network which allows it to exhibit dynamic temporal behavior. Unlike feedforward neural networks, RNNs can use their internal memory to process arbitrary sequences of inputs. This makes them applicable to tasks such as unsegmented connected handwriting recognition, where they have achieved the best known results.[1] Architectures[edit] Fully recurrent network[edit] This is the basic architecture developed in the 1980s: a network of neuron-like units, each with a directed connection to every other unit. For supervised learning in discrete time settings, training sequences of real-valued input vectors become sequences of activations of the input nodes, one input vector at a time. Hopfield network[edit] The Hopfield network is of historic interest although it is not a general RNN, as it is not designed to process sequences of patterns.

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A Neuroscientist's Radical Theory of How Networks Become Conscious - Wired Science It’s a question that’s perplexed philosophers for centuries and scientists for decades: Where does consciousness come from? We know it exists, at least in ourselves. But how it arises from chemistry and electricity in our brains is an unsolved mystery. Neuroscientist Christof Koch, chief scientific officer at the Allen Institute for Brain Science, thinks he might know the answer. According to Koch, consciousness arises within any sufficiently complex, information-processing system. All animals, from humans on down to earthworms, are conscious; even the internet could be. Artificial neural network An artificial neural network is an interconnected group of nodes, akin to the vast network of neurons in a brain. Here, each circular node represents an artificial neuron and an arrow represents a connection from the output of one neuron to the input of another. For example, a neural network for handwriting recognition is defined by a set of input neurons which may be activated by the pixels of an input image. After being weighted and transformed by a function (determined by the network's designer), the activations of these neurons are then passed on to other neurons. This process is repeated until finally, an output neuron is activated.

Restricted Boltzmann machine Diagram of a restricted Boltzmann machine with three visible units and four hidden units (no bias units). A restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) is a generative stochastic neural network that can learn a probability distribution over its set of inputs. RBMs were initially invented under the name Harmonium by Paul Smolensky in 1986,[1] but only rose to prominence after Geoffrey Hinton and collaborators invented fast learning algorithms for them in the mid-2000s. RBMs have found applications in dimensionality reduction,[2] classification,[3] collaborative filtering, feature learning[4] and topic modelling.[5] They can be trained in either supervised or unsupervised ways, depending on the task. Restricted Boltzmann machines can also be used in deep learning networks.

Deep learning Deep learning (also known as deep structured learning, hierarchical learning or deep machine learning) is a branch of machine learning based on a set of algorithms that attempt to model high level abstractions in data. In a simple case, there might be two sets of neurons: ones that receive an input signal and ones that send an output signal. When the input layer receives an input it passes on a modified version of the input to the next layer. In a deep network, there are many layers between the input and output (and the layers are not made of neurons but it can help to think of it that way), allowing the algorithm to use multiple processing layers, composed of multiple linear and non-linear transformations.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9] Research in this area attempts to make better representations and create models to learn these representations from large-scale unlabeled data. Deep learning has been characterized as a buzzword, or a rebranding of neural networks.[13][14]

Self-organizing map A self-organizing map (SOM) or self-organizing feature map (SOFM) is a type of artificial neural network (ANN) that is trained using unsupervised learning to produce a low-dimensional (typically two-dimensional), discretized representation of the input space of the training samples, called a map. Self-organizing maps are different from other artificial neural networks in the sense that they use a neighborhood function to preserve the topological properties of the input space. This makes SOMs useful for visualizing low-dimensional views of high-dimensional data, akin to multidimensional scaling. The model was first described as an artificial neural network by the Finnish professor Teuvo Kohonen, and is sometimes called a Kohonen map or network.[1][2] Like most artificial neural networks, SOMs operate in two modes: training and mapping.

Google scientist Jeff Dean on how neural networks are improving everything Google does Simon Dawson Google's goal: A more powerful search that full understands answers to commands like, "Book me a ticket to Washington DC." Jon Xavier, Web Producer, Silicon Valley Business Journal Dimensionality reduction In machine learning and statistics, dimensionality reduction or dimension reduction is the process of reducing the number of random variables under consideration,[1] and can be divided into feature selection and feature extraction.[2] Feature selection[edit] Feature extraction[edit] The main linear technique for dimensionality reduction, principal component analysis, performs a linear mapping of the data to a lower-dimensional space in such a way that the variance of the data in the low-dimensional representation is maximized. In practice, the correlation matrix of the data is constructed and the eigenvectors on this matrix are computed. The eigenvectors that correspond to the largest eigenvalues (the principal components) can now be used to reconstruct a large fraction of the variance of the original data.

Connectionism Connectionism is a set of approaches in the fields of artificial intelligence, cognitive psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience, and philosophy of mind, that models mental or behavioral phenomena as the emergent processes of interconnected networks of simple units. There are many forms of connectionism, but the most common forms use neural network models. Basic principles[edit] The central connectionist principle is that mental phenomena can be described by interconnected networks of simple and often uniform units. The form of the connections and the units can vary from model to model.

IBM Research creates new foundation to program SyNAPSE chips (Credit: IBM Research) Scientists from IBM unveiled on Aug. 8 a breakthrough software ecosystem designed for programming silicon chips that have an architecture inspired by the function, low power, and compact volume of the brain. The technology could enable a new generation of intelligent sensor networks that mimic the brain’s abilities for perception, action, and cognition. Online machine learning Online machine learning is used in the case where the data becomes available in a sequential fashion, in order to determine a mapping from the dataset to the corresponding labels. The key difference between online learning and batch learning (or "offline" learning) techniques, is that in online learning the mapping is updated after the arrival of every new datapoint in a scalable fashion, whereas batch techniques are used when one has access to the entire training dataset at once. Online learning could be used in the case of a process occurring in time, for example the value of a stock given its history and other external factors, in which case the mapping updates as time goes on and we get more and more samples. Ideally in online learning, the memory needed to store the function remains constant even with added datapoints, since the solution computed at one step is updated when a new datapoint becomes available, after which that datapoint can then be discarded. , where

Feedforward neural network In a feed forward network information always moves one direction; it never goes backwards. A feedforward neural network is an artificial neural network where connections between the units do not form a directed cycle. This is different from recurrent neural networks. The feedforward neural network was the first and simplest type of artificial neural network devised.

Universe Grows Like A giant Brain The universe may grow like a giant brain, according to a new computer simulation. The results, published Nov.16 in the journal Nature's Scientific Reports, suggest that some undiscovered, fundamental laws may govern the growth of systems large and small, from the electrical firing between brain cells and growth of social networks to the expansion of galaxies. "Natural growth dynamics are the same for different real networks, like the Internet or the brain or social networks," said study co-author Dmitri Krioukov, a physicist at the University of California San Diego. The new study suggests a single fundamental law of nature may govern these networks, said physicist Kevin Bassler of the University of Houston, who was not involved in the study. [What's That? Your Physics Questions Answered]

History of the Perceptron History of the Perceptron The evolution of the artificial neuron has progressed through several stages. The roots of which, are firmly grounded within neurological work done primarily by Santiago Ramon y Cajal and Sir Charles Scott Sherrington . Ramon y Cajal was a prominent figure in the exploration of the structure of nervous tissue and showed that, despite their ability to communicate with each other, neurons were physically separated from other neurons. With a greater understanding of the basic elements of the brain, efforts were made to describe how these basic neurons could result in overt behaviors, to which William James was a prominent theoretical contributor. Working from the beginnings of neuroscience, Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts in their 1943 paper, "A Logical Calculus of Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity," contended that neurons with a binary threshold activation function were analogous to first order logic sentences.

Network science {{Scienc[1] e}} Network science is an interdisciplinary academic field which studies complex networks such as telecommunication networks, computer networks, biological networks, cognitive and semantic networks, and social networks. The field draws on theories and methods including graph theory from mathematics, statistical mechanics from physics, data mining and information visualization from computer science, inferential modeling from statistics, and social structure from sociology. The United States National Research Council defines network science as "the study of network representations of physical, biological, and social phenomena leading to predictive models of these phenomena