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Smart and Modern Materials

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Smart Glass, Smart Windows, Smart Glass Film. Metal foam. A metal foam is a cellular structure consisting of a solid metal, frequently aluminium, as well as a large volume fraction of gas-filled pores. The pores can be sealed (closed-cell foam), or they can form an interconnected network (open-cell foam). The defining characteristic of metal foams is a very high porosity: typically 75–95% of the volume consists of void spaces making these ultralight materials. The strength of foamed metal possesses a power law relationship to its density; i.e., a 20% dense material is more than twice as strong as a 10% dense material. Metallic foams typically retain some physical properties of their base material. Foam made from non-flammable metal will remain non-flammable and the foam is generally recyclable back to its base material. Coefficient of thermal expansion will also remain similar while thermal conductivity will likely be reduced.[1] Open-cell[edit] Open-cell metal foam Manufacturing routes[edit] Closed-cell[edit] Manufacturing routes[edit] Design[edit]

ALU composite panels. Powder coating. Aluminium extrusions being powder coated Powder coated bicycle frames and parts Properties of Powder Coating[edit] Because powder coating does not have a liquid carrier, it can produce thicker coatings than conventional liquid coatings without running or sagging, and powder coating produces minimal appearance differences between horizontally coated surfaces and vertically coated surfaces. Because no carrier fluid evaporates away, the coating process emits few volatile organic compounds (VOC). Finally, several powder colors can be applied before curing them all together, allowing color blending and bleed special effects in a single layer. Most powder coatings have a particle size in the range of 30 to 50 μm, a softening temperature Tg around 80°C, a melting temperature around 150°C, and are cured at around 200°C.[1] For such powder coatings, film build-ups of greater than 50 μm may be required to obtain an acceptably smooth film.

Types of powder coatings[edit] Production: Curing[edit] Nickel. Nickel electroplating. Nickel electroplating is a technique of electroplating a thin layer of nickel onto a metal object. The nickel layer can be decorative, provide corrosion resistance, wear resistance, or used to build-up worn or undersized parts for salvage purposes.[1] Overview[edit] Types and chemistry[edit] Watts[edit] Watts nickel plating baths can deposit both bright and semi-bright nickel. Bright nickel is typically used for decorative purposes and corrosion protection. Semi-bright deposits are used for engineering nickel where a high luster is not desired.[4][5] Nickel sulfamate[edit] Sulfamate nickel plating is used for many engineering applications. All-chloride[edit] All-Chloride solutions allow for the deposition of thick nickel coatings.

Sulfate-chloride[edit] A Sulfate-Chloride bath operates at lower voltages than a Watts bath and provide a higher rate of deposition. All-sulfate[edit] An all-sulfate solution is used for electro-depositing nickel where the anodes are insoluble. Hard nickel[edit] Coin. Anodizing. These carabiners have an anodized aluminium surface that has been dyed; they are made in many colors.

Anodizing is also used to prevent galling of threaded components and to make dielectric films for electrolytic capacitors. Anodic films are most commonly applied to protect aluminium alloys, although processes also exist for titanium, zinc, magnesium, niobium, zirconium, hafnium, and tantalum. Iron or carbon steel metal exfoliates when oxidized under neutral or alkaline microelectrolytic conditions; i.e., the iron oxide (actually ferric hydroxide or hydrated iron oxide, also known as rust) forms by anoxic anodic pits and large cathodic surface, these pits concentrate anions such as sulfate and chloride accelerating the underlying metal to corrosion. Carbon flakes or nodules in iron or steel with high carbon content (high carbon steel, cast iron) may cause an electrolytic potential and interfere with coating or plating. History[edit] Anodized aluminium[edit] Process[edit] [edit] Shape-memory alloy. A shape-memory alloy (SMA, smart metal, memory metal, memory alloy, muscle wire, smart alloy) is an alloy that "remembers" its original shape and that when deformed returns to its pre-deformed shape when heated.

This material is a lightweight, solid-state alternative to conventional actuators such as hydraulic, pneumatic, and motor-based systems. Shape-memory alloys have applications in industries including automotive, aerospace, biomedical and robotics.[1] Overview[edit] The two main types of shape-memory alloys are copper-aluminium-nickel, and nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloys but SMAs can also be created by alloying zinc, copper, gold and iron. SMA phases and crystal structures NiTi alloys change from austenite to martensite upon cooling; Mf is the temperature at which the transition to martensite completes upon cooling.

In this figure, ξ(T) represents the martensite fraction. One-way vs. two-way shape memory[edit] Shape-memory alloys have different shape-memory effects. History[edit] Information. GCSE Bitesize: Smart materials. 290. Thermochromism. A mood ring shown face front. Note the band of color change. Thermochromism is the property of substances to change color due to a change in temperature. A mood ring is an excellent example of this phenomenon, but thermochromism also has more practical uses, e.g. in baby bottles (changes to a different color when cool enough to drink) or kettles (changes when water is at or near boiling point). Thermochromism is one of several types of chromism. Organic materials[edit] Thermochromatic liquid crystals[edit] The two common approaches are based on liquid crystals and leuco dyes.

Some liquid crystals are capable of displaying different colors at different temperatures. Some such materials are cholesteryl nonanoate or cyanobiphenyls. Liquid crystals used in dyes and inks often come microencapsulated, in the form of suspension. Liquid crystals are used in applications where the color change has to be accurately defined. Leuco dyes[edit] Example of a Hypercolor t-shirt. Papers[edit] Polymers[edit] Amazon.co. Frequently Bought Together Customers Who Viewed This Item Also Viewed Product Information What Other Items Do Customers Buy After Viewing This Item? Product Description Thermocolour sheets are self-adhesive and consist of a thin layer of liquid crystal that has been printed on to a black background. There are no customer reviews yet. Look for similar items by category. Thermochromic sheet. Rockets. Model Rocketry encompasses many aspects of advanced science. As such, the new interest in the rocketry community for night launches has spurred some interesting innovations.

But shooting rockets at night does not have to be "rocket science". You just need a rocket that can be tracked in the air and located after decent. Glow in the dark paint offers this need with low cost, low weight, and no requirement for batteries. Paint based lighting also clearly adds to the scientific level of a rocketry project. Painting a rocket with glow in the dark paint is relatively easy.

An alternative is a technique called "Glow Dusting", which can be accomplished by using a salt shaker to simply dust the powder onto wet paint. As with any paint job, we suggest a thin sealing layer. Molded Nose Cones and Fins There seems to be an increasing number of hobbyists interested in making their own nose cones and other plastic parts. Display Light Sources Another alternative is a UV flashlight. Glow in the Dark Paint - Water Based. Glow in the Dark Rocks. Glow in the Dark Sand. Gun Sights. Official Statement The owners of Glow Inc. support the legal and responsible ownership of weapons by both law enforcement and citizens.

In the unfortunate scenario where there is a need to discharge a weapon, improved accuracy lowers the probability of injury to an innocent bystander. We feel that phosphorescent paint is a vital component of increasing this accuracy in dark environments. Your typical criminal will not take the effort or pay the cost to apply phosphorescent paint to his weapons. Therefore, we believe that making this information available is for the good of the community and hopefully will save a few innocent lives. Glow in the dark paint is a great way to improve nighttime visibility of rifle and gun sights. The only paint that we recommend using on a weapon is Ultra Green Glow in the Dark Paint. An officer will typically enter lighted rooms throughout his shift, so the glow product performs well under these conditions. Painting Techniques for Guns and Rifles. Plym1. Poly2. Polymorph. Polymorph Casting - How to. Gorilla Glass. Gorilla Glass is the registered trademark for an alkali-aluminosilicate sheet toughened glass manufactured by U.S. glassmaker Corning Inc.

Engineered for a combination of thinness, lightness, and damage-resistance, it is used primarily as the cover glass for portable electronic devices including mobile phones, portable media players, laptop computer displays, and some television screens.[1] It is manufactured through immersion in a molten alkaline salt bath using ion exchange to produce compressive residual stress at the surface. This prevents cracks from propagating – for a crack to start, it will first have to overcome this compressive stress.[2] History[edit] Corning experimented with chemically strengthened glass in 1960, as part of a "Project Muscle" initiative. Within a few years it had developed a "muscled glass"[3] it named "Chemcor" glass. Development[edit] Manufacture[edit] Corning manufactures Gorilla Glass in Harrodsburg, Kentucky (USA), Shizuoka (Japan) and in Taiwan.

Electronic Smart Glass. Smart Glass in houses. Smart Glass. Amplified piezoelectric actuator. Amplified piezoelectric actuators are specific actuators using piezoelectric materials as active material, and having a specific design to overcome traditional limitations of classical direct piezoelectric actuator, the limited stroke. As classical piezoelectric materials have a strain of 0.1%, it is practically impossible to reach significant stroke without displacement amplification (1 mm displacement would require 1 meter of piezoelectric material). The solution to reach middle range stroke is to use an amplification system. Single-cell actuator[edit] The principle is based on the deformation of an elliptic shell to amplify the ceramic strain. The ceramic stack is aligned with the great axis of the ellipse.

A small deformation of the great axis creates a large displacement of the small axis. The amplification ratio can typically reach 20 times, that means such actuators can reach strokes of 1 mm. The goal of the elliptic shell is not only to amplify the displacement. Applications[edit] Piezo-Electric Actuator. Waterproofing. Waterproofing is making an object virtually impervious to water. Discussion[edit] Water-proof or water-resistant describes objects relatively unaffected by water or resisting the ingress of water under specified conditions. Such items may be used in wet environments or under water to specified depths. Waterproofing describes making an object waterproof or water-resistant (such as a camera, watch or mobile phone).[1] "Water resistant" and "waterproof" often refer to penetration of water in its liquid state and possibly under pressure where damp proof refers to the resistance to humidity or dampness.

Waterproofing is used in reference to building structures (basements, decks, wet areas, etc.), watercraft, canvas, clothing (raincoat, waders) and paper (e.g., milk and juice cartons). Waterproofing conducted on the exterior of a freeway tunnel Construction waterproofing[edit] Also, many types of geomembranes are available to control water, gases, or pollution. Oil-based waterproofing[edit] NeverWet Arrives - Hands-On Product Demonstration. Paper-Backed Veneer Pricing and Pictures. Desktop-closeup-large. More info. Bending Ply. Flexiply3. Flexiply1. Information. Information 2. Mosquito. Difference. Plywood. Wing plywood.

Medium-density fibreboard. Medium-density fibreboard (MDF) is an engineered wood product made by breaking down hardwood or softwood residuals into wood fibres, often in a defibrator, combining it with wax and a resin binder, and forming panels by applying high temperature and pressure.[1] MDF is generally denser than plywood. It is made up of separated fibres, but can be used as a building material similar in application to plywood. It is stronger and much more dense than particle board.[2] The name derives from the distinction in densities of fibreboard. Large-scale production of MDF began in the 1980s, in both North America and Europe.[3] Physical properties[edit] Over time, the word "MDF" has become a generic name for any dry process fiber board. Types[edit] There are different kinds of MDF, which are sometimes labeled by colour: Moisture resistant is typically greenFire retardant MDF is typically red or blue Manufacture[edit] Medium-density fiberboard output in 2005 The trees are debarked after being cut.

MDF. Bendy MDF. Flexible MDF. Flexible MDF.