Forensic science. Forensic science is the scientific method of gathering and examining information about the past. This is especially important in law enforcement where forensics is done in relation to criminal or civil law, but forensics are also carried out in other fields, such as astronomy, archaeology, biology and geology to investigate ancient times. In the United States of America there are over 12,000 forensic science technicians, as of 2010. The word forensic comes from the Latin forēnsis, meaning "of or before the forum. History Early methods Archimedes may have used his principle of buoyancy to determine whether the golden crown was less dense than solid gold.
The first written account of using medicine and entomology to solve criminal cases is attributed to the book of Xi Yuan Lu (translated as Washing Away of Wrongs), written during the Song Dynasty China by Song Ci (宋慈, 1186–1249) in 1248. Origins of forensic science Toxicology and ballistics Anthropometry Phrenology. Phrenology (from Greek: φρήν, phrēn, "mind"; and λόγος, logos, "knowledge") is a pseudoscience primarily focused on measurements of the human skull, based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind, and that certain brain areas have localized, specific functions or modules. Developed by German physician Franz Joseph Gall in 1796, the discipline was very popular in the 19th century, especially from about 1810 until 1840.
The principal British centre for phrenology was Edinburgh, where the Edinburgh Phrenological Society was established in 1820. Although now regarded as an obsolete amalgamation of primitive neuroanatomy with moral philosophy, phrenological thinking has been influential in 19th-century psychiatry. Gall's assumption that character, thoughts, and emotions are located in localized parts of the brain is considered an important historical advance toward neuropsychology. Mental faculties Method History Application Fingerprint. A fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger. The recovery of fingerprints from a crime scene is an important method of forensic science. Fingerprints are easily deposited on suitable surfaces (such as glass or metal or polished stone) by the natural secretions of sweat from the eccrine glands that are present in epidermal ridges.
In a wider use of the term, fingerprints are the traces of an impression from the friction ridges of any part of a human or other primate hand. A print from the sole of the foot can also leave an impression of friction ridges. Biology For identification The friction ridges on a finger An image of a fingerprint created by the friction ridge structure An intentional recording of friction ridges is usually made with black printer's ink rolled across a contrasting white background, typically a white card. Types Exemplar Exemplar prints on paper using ink Latent Barely visible latent prints on a knife Patent Plastic.
The History of Fingerprints. Fingerprints offer a reliable means of personal identification. That is the essential explanation for fingerprints having replaced other methods of establishing the identities of persons reluctant to admit previous arrests. 1 The science of fingerprint identification 5 stands out among all other forensic sciences for many reasons, including the following: Other visible human characteristics, such as facial features, tend to change considerably with age, but fingerprints are relatively persistent. Barring injuries or surgery causing deep scarring, or diseases such as leprosy damaging the formative layers of friction ridge skin, finger and palm print features have never been shown to move about or change their unit relationship throughout the life of a person (and injuries, scarring and diseases tend to exhibit telltale indicators of unnatural change).
In earlier civilizations, branding or maiming were used to mark persons as criminals. AD 1400s - Persia 1600s 1685 - Bidloo 1788 - Mayer Dr. History of Fingerprints. 1858 - Sir William Herschel, British Administrator in District in India, requires fingerprint and signatures on civil contracts Fingerprints have been used as a means of positively identifying people for many years. Here is a brief history of the science of fingerprints: 1892 - Sir Francis Galton, a British Anthropologist and cousin to Charles Darwin, publishes the first book on fingerprints. In his book, Galton identifies the individuality and uniqueness of fingerprints. The unique characteristics of fingerprints, as identified by Galton, will officially become known as minutiae, however they are sometimes still referred to as Galton’s Details. 1896 - International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), Establish National Bureau of Criminal Identification, for the exchange of arrest information 1901 - Sir Edward Henry, an Inspector General of Police in Bengal, India, develops the first system of classifying fingerprints.
When a man named Will West entered the Leavenworth Prison inmates. Francis Galton. Sir Francis Galton, FRS (/ˈfrɑːnsɪs ˈɡɔːltən/; 16 February 1822 – 17 January 1911) was an English Victorian polymath: anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, psychometrician, and statistician. He was knighted in 1909. Galton produced over 340 papers and books. He also created the statistical concept of correlation and widely promoted regression toward the mean. He was the first to apply statistical methods to the study of human differences and inheritance of intelligence, and introduced the use of questionnaires and surveys for collecting data on human communities, which he needed for genealogical and biographical works and for his anthropometric studies. He was a pioneer in eugenics, coining the term itself and the phrase "nature versus nurture". His book Hereditary Genius (1869) was the first social scientific attempt to study genius and greatness. Biography Early life Louisa Jane Butler Middle years
Crimeline * history of forensic sciences * history of criminology * toxicology * fingerprint * dna analysis * autopsy * arsenic * poison. Bernard Spilsbury. Sir Bernard Henry Spilsbury KBE (16 May 1877 – 17 December 1947) was a British pathologist. His cases include Hawley Harvey Crippen, the Seddon case and Major Armstrong poisonings, the "Brides in the Bath" murders by George Joseph Smith, Louis Voisin, Jean-Pierre Vaquier, the Crumbles murders, Norman Thorne, Donald Merrett, the Podmore case, the Sidney Harry Fox matricide, Alfred Rouse, Elvira Barney, Tony Mancini and the Vera Page case. He also played a crucial role in the development of Operation Mincemeat, a deception operation during World War II which saved thousands of lives of Allied service personnel. Personal life Spilsbury was born on 16 May 1877 at 35 Bath Street, Leamington Spa, Warwickshire.
He was the eldest of the four children of James Spilsbury, a manufacturing chemist, and his wife, Marion Elizabeth Joy. On 3 September 1908, Spilsbury married Edith Caroline Horton. The deaths (of Peter, in particular) were a blow from which Spilsbury never truly recovered. Joseph Bell. Joseph Bell, JP, DL, FRCS (2 December 1837 – 4 October 1911) was a Scottish lecturer at the medical school of the University of Edinburgh in the 19th century. He is perhaps best known as an inspiration for the literary character Sherlock Holmes. Life and career Bell was a great-grandson of Benjamin Bell, a forensic surgeon. In his instruction, Joseph Bell emphasized the importance of close observation in making a diagnosis. Bell studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh Medical School and received an MD in 1859. Bell wrote the book Manual of the Operations of Surgery which was published in 1883. Joseph Bell died on 4 October 1911.
Inspiration of Sherlock Holmes Dramatisation In the BBC television series Murder Rooms: The Dark Beginnings of Sherlock Holmes was a fictionalised account of Doyle's time as Bell's clerk. In 2006, Stone Publishing House published a book, written by historian Dr. Memorial Grave References External links Alphonse Bertillon. Class on the Bertillon system in France in 1911 Alphonse Bertillon (French: [bɛʁtijɔ̃]; April 24, 1853 – February 13, 1914) was a French police officer and biometrics researcher who applied the anthropological technique of anthropometry to law enforcement creating an identification system based on physical measurements.
Anthropometry was the first scientific system used by police to identify criminals. Before that time, criminals could only be identified by name or photograph. The method was eventually supplanted by fingerprinting. He is also the inventor of the mug shot. Photographing of criminals began in the 1840s only a few years after the invention of photography, but it was not until 1888 that Bertillon standardized the process. Biography Bertillon was born in Paris. He was a son of statistician Louis-Adolphe Bertillon and younger brother of the statistician and demographer Jacques Bertillon.
Bertillon and the Dreyfus Affair Legacy References and sources Famous Crimes - The Famous Crimes and Criminals of History. These are the cases books are written about and movies are made -- the heinous crimes, the serial killers, the shocking murder cases, the celebrity defendants and the cold case files, some of which have remained unsolved for decades. Get the background on these famous cases and find out if there have been any recent developments. Unsolved Crimes and Cold Cases Unsolved criminal cases can be as mysterious as they are compelling. Our fascination turns us into puzzle-solving sleuths looking for the one stone left unturned which will solve the crime.
Serial Killers A serial killer is generally defined as someone who murders three or more people in three or more separate events over a period of time. Infamous Murders What makes a murder infamous? Celebrity Defendants Celebrities in trouble always catch the attention of the public eye. Crime Trivia Quizzes Recognize their mug shot? Female Offenders Female Murder Victims Child Killers Child Victims Cannibals Sadists Parents Who Killed Their Children. H. H. Holmes. Herman Webster Mudgett (May 16, 1861 – May 7, 1896), better known under the name of Dr. Henry Howard Holmes, was one of the first documented American serial killers in the modern sense of the term.
In Chicago at the time of the 1893 World's Fair, Holmes opened a hotel which he had designed and built for himself specifically with murder in mind, and which was the location of many of his murders. While he confessed to 27 murders, of which nine were confirmed, his actual body count could be as high as 200. He took an unknown number of his victims from the 1893 Chicago World's Fair, which was less than two miles away, to his "World's Fair" hotel. Early life Mudgett was born in Gilmanton, New Hampshire, May 16, 1861, to Levi Horton Mudgett and Theodate Page Price, both of whom were descended from the first European settlers in the area.
On January 28, 1887, while he was still married to Clara, Holmes married Myrta Belknap (b. Chicago and the "Murder Castle" Mary Ann Cotton. Mary Ann Cotton (born Mary Ann Robson; 31 October 1832 – 24 March 1873) was an English woman convicted of murdering her children. She was believed to have murdered up to 21 people, mainly by arsenic poisoning. Early life Mary Ann Robson was born on 31 October 1832 at Low Moorsley (now part of Houghton-le-Spring in the City of Sunderland) and baptised at St Mary's, West Rainton on 11 November.
When Mary Ann was eight, her parents moved the family to the County Durham village of Murton, where she went to a new school and found it difficult to make friends. Soon after the move her father fell 150 feet (46 m) to his death down a mine shaft at Murton Colliery. In 1843, Mary Ann's widowed mother, Margaret (née Lonsdale) married George Stott, with whom Mary Ann did not get along. At the age of 16, she moved out to become a nurse at Edward Potter's home in the nearby village of South Hetton. Husband 1: William Mowbray Husband 2: George Ward Husband 3: James Robinson Béla Kiss. Béla Kiss (1877 – ?) (last name pronounced "Kish") was a Hungarian serial killer. He is thought to have murdered at least 24 young women and attempted to pickle them in giant metal drums that he kept on his property. Life Béla Kiss was a tinsmith who had lived in Czinkota (then a town near Budapest, now a neighborhood within the city itself) since 1900.
He was an amateur astrologer and allegedly fond of other occult practices. Townsfolk also noticed that Kiss had collected a number of metal drums. Search In July 1916, Budapest police received a call from a Czinkota landlord who had found seven large metal drums. Nagy informed the military that they should arrest Béla Kiss immediately, if he was still alive - there was also a possibility that he was a prisoner of war. Jakubec assured police that she knew absolutely nothing about the murders. From the letters Nagy discerned several things. Each woman that came to the house was strangled. Escape Sightings See also Belle Gunness. Belle Sorenson Gunness (born as Brynhild Paulsdatter Størseth; November 11, 1859 – April 28, 1908) was a Norwegian-American serial killer. Standing six feet tall (183 cm) and weighing over 200 pounds (91 kg), she was a physically strong woman. She killed most of her suitors and boyfriends, and her two daughters, Myrtle and Lucy.
She may also have killed both of her husbands and all of her children, on different occasions. Her apparent motives involved collecting life insurance, cash and other valuables, and eliminating witnesses. Reports estimate that she killed between 25 and 40 people over several decades. Biography Early years An Irish TV documentary by Anne Berit Vestby aired on September 4, 2006, tells a common, but unverified, story about Gunness' early life. Following the example of a sister, Nellie Larson, who had emigrated to America earlier, Gunness moved to the United States in 1881 and assumed a more American-style name. First victim The suitors Ole B. George Joseph Smith. George Joseph Smith (11 January 1872 – 13 August 1915) was an English serial killer and bigamist. In 1915 he was convicted and subsequently hanged for the slayings of three women, the case becoming known as the "Brides in the Bath Murders". As well as being widely reported in the media, the case was significant in the history of forensic pathology and detection.
It was also one of the first cases in which similarities between connected crimes were used to prove deliberation, a technique used in subsequent prosecutions. Early life and marriages The son of an insurance agent, George Joseph Smith was born in Bethnal Green, London. He was sent to a reformatory at Gravesend, Kent at the age of nine and later served time for swindling and theft. In 1896, he was imprisoned for 12 months for persuading a woman to steal from her employers. In October 1909, he married Sarah Freeman, under the name George Rose Smith. Two similar deaths The hunt On 12 January, Dr. Solution Metropolitan Police Service - History - Crime Museum. Black Museum. Criminology. Background information on grave robbing in Scotland.