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The History of Fingerprints

The History of Fingerprints
Fingerprints offer a reliable means of personal identification. That is the essential explanation for fingerprints having replaced other methods of establishing the identities of persons reluctant to admit previous arrests. 1 The science of fingerprint identification 5 stands out among all other forensic sciences for many reasons, including the following: Other visible human characteristics, such as facial features, tend to change considerably with age, but fingerprints are relatively persistent. Barring injuries or surgery causing deep scarring, or diseases such as leprosy damaging the formative layers of friction ridge skin, finger and palm print features have never been shown to move about or change their unit relationship throughout the life of a person (and injuries, scarring and diseases tend to exhibit telltale indicators of unnatural change). In earlier civilizations, branding or maiming were used to mark persons as criminals. AD 1400s - Persia 1600s 1685 - Bidloo 1788 - Mayer Dr. Related:  forensic scienceCSI

Crime scene A crime scene is a location where a crime took place (or another location where evidence of the crime may be found), and comprises the area from which most of the physical evidence is retrieved by law enforcement personnel, crime scene investigators (CSIs) or in rare circumstances, forensic scientists. Crime scenes may or may not be where the crime was committed. There are different levels and types of crime scenes. Crime scene preservation[edit] A perimeter is taped off with barricade tape in order to keep only those necessary on site. This is done to prevent Contaminated Evidence. Documentation[edit] Photographs of all evidence are taken before anything is touched, moved, or otherwise further investigated. Evidence collection[edit] Evidence is collected through two ways: forensics and interviews. Types of crime scenes[edit] Different types of crime scenes include outdoors, indoor, and conveyance. Reconstruction[edit] See also[edit] External links[edit]

Bloodstain Tutorial The success or failure of any criminal investigation often depends on the recognition of physical evidence left at a crime scene and the proper analysis of that evidence. Crime scenes that involve bloodshed often contain a wealth of information in the form of bloodstains. The pattern, size, shape, and the location of such stains may be very useful in the reconstruction of the events that occurred. William G. ECKERT and Stuart H. JAMES Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: The examination of the shapes, locations and distribution patterns of bloodstains in order to provide an interpretation of the physical events by which they were created that is based on the premise that all bloodstains and bloodstain patterns are characteristic of the forces that have created them. The interpretation of bloodstain patterns found at the scene or on exhibits such as the clothing of the principles of the occurrence can be used to: Properties of Blood: Surface Tension in Blood: Target Surface Texture:

CSI effect The CSI effect, also known as the CSI syndrome[1] and the CSI infection,[2] is any of several ways in which the exaggerated portrayal of forensic science on crime television shows such as CSI: Crime Scene Investigation influences public perception. The term most often refers to the belief that jurors have come to demand more forensic evidence in criminal trials, thereby raising the effective standard of proof for prosecutors. While this belief is widely held among American legal professionals, some studies have suggested that crime shows are unlikely to cause such an effect, although frequent CSI viewers may place a lower value on circumstantial evidence.[3] As technology improves and becomes more prevalent throughout society, people may also develop higher expectations for the capabilities of forensic technology.[4] There are several other manifestations of the CSI effect. Background[edit] Several aspects of popular crime shows have been criticized as being unrealistic. Trials[edit]

List of digital forensics tools During the 1980s, most digital forensic investigations consisted of "live analysis", examining digital media directly using non-specialist tools. In the 1990s, several freeware and other proprietary tools (both hardware and software) were created to allow investigations to take place without modifying media. This first set of tools mainly focused on computer forensics, although in recent years similar tools have evolved for the field of mobile device forensics.[1] Computer forensics[edit] Memory forensics[edit] Memory forensics tools are used to acquire and/or analyze a computer's volatile memory (RAM). Mobile device forensics[edit] Mobile forensics tools tend to consist of both a hardware and software component. Other[edit] References[edit]

CSI: THE EXPERIENCE - Press / Media, Exhibit Walk-Through Exhibit Walk-Through When you visit CSI: The Experience, you first enter a Briefing Theater to watch a fast-paced introduction on a giant flat-screen TV. None other than Anthony E. Finally, CSI's lead investigator, Gil Grissom, steps in and introduces himself as your CSI supervisor. You then begin an intriguing journey to solve a crime mystery by entering one of three very different crime scenes: The Crime Scenes In "A House Collided" a car has run through the living room window of a house in a quiet suburb. In "Who Got Served?" In "No Bones About It!" Beginning the Investigation After exiting the crime scenes, you'll refer to a large wall of crime scene photos and clues you may have missed then begin to analyze evidence in two highly interactive lab areas, each featuring multiple stations that allow for various evidence testing. For "Who Got Served?" Cracking the Case Here lies the moment of truth.

The man who cleans up blood after murders Image copyright Bénédicte Desrus / Alamy Mexico has one of the highest murder rates in the world, but who cleans up the blood at the crime scene when the police and investigators have left? Donovan Tavera is Mexico's first forensic cleaner. As he explains here, his fascination with blood began as a young boy. What happens to the blood after a murder? The first time I saw a dead body was when I was 12 years old. As well as us bystanders there were police officers and investigators. I asked her: "Who cleans the blood after a murder?" When my father came home from work I asked him too: "What happens to the blood after a murder? That was when I decided to find out for myself. A murder isn't the same as an accident - in a murder there is a lot of blood. When I was about 17 I started experimenting. And that's how I became a forensic cleaner. Over the years I have invented more than 300 different formulas to clean up blood. Before I come I ask what happened, and where the corpse is.

CSI: THE EXPERIENCE — Web Adventures Attention all teachers, students, or even just the curious--we have a variety of fun, interesting, and education activites free for the download. Click here to see how bone length can be used to calculate height, create your own bill for forensic testing, or solve forensic logic problems--and more! Looking for some fun forensic activites to do at home? From blood spatter analysis to DNA extractions, we've got fun (yet safe) activites for all ages. Check it out! Check here for a collection of new activites guaranteed to put your forensic skills to the test. Looking for even more information on forensic science and criminalists?

decomposition FACTS: WHAT HAPPENS TO A BODY AFTER DEATH (WARNING - Not for the squeamish) UPON DEATH Nature is very efficient at breaking down human corpses. When you die your heart stops pumping blood around your body, thus depriving your cells of oxygen, which rapidly begin to die. Upon death blood also starts to settle in the those parts of the body that are closest to the ground, turning the top part grayish white and waxy looking, whilst darkening the underside. Funeral directors (Undertakers) tend to lift the head of a corpse in the coffin in order to prevent discolouring of the face. The intestines are packed with millions of micro-organisms that don't die with the person. STAGES OF DECAY Initial decay (Known as 'autolysis') - externally the corpse looks okay, but internally the organs are breaking down. EMBALMING Embalming is the practice of preserving human (or animal) remains. DISPOSAL Decomposition is well under way by the time burial or cremation occurs.

Armadillidium vulgare Armadillidium vulgare are omnivorous organisms that have been found to eat a wide variety of matter. They are known to eat dead plant matter, but also will occasionally eat leaves of plants that are clinging to life. Additionally, the organism consumes carcasses of dead invertebrates, larger organisms in various states of decomposition, and on rare occasions, they even consume individuals of their own species (Paris 1963). Most importantly, however, is that A.vulgare serves as a decomposer that aids in cycling of nutrients (add link to nutrient cycle) within an ecosystem. A.vulgure can also play a different role in the cycling of nutrients in an ecosystem as prey. In addition to the predator/prey relationship formed between A. vulgare and other species, the organism has commonly been found to be a host to parasites known as Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus (Nickol and Dappen 1982). P.cylindraceus also has a parasitic relationship with a variety of different birds, including the robin.

Taphonomy: What Happens To Bones After Burial? | Bones Don't Lie Last week I discussed a way of preserving bodies almost indefinitely in some cases: embalming. On the other side of this is decay, the process of bodily decline and biological breakdown of the flesh. If you’ve ever watched any of the forensics crime shows, you know that understanding decay and changes in the body can be a key factor in determining when the individual died and how the body was treated after death. But its also important for archaeologists dealing with remains that are ancient. First, let’s look at the early stages of decay. Stages of Decomposition Using a Pig, via Wikimedia Taphonomy is the study of what happens to remains after the death of the living creature. Grave of Anglo-Saxon, no remains left due to acidic soil, via CSI Anglo-Saxon Anglo-Saxon Burial, bones somewhat intact, via Daily Mail There can be extrinsic (external) factors, or intrinsic (internal) factors that effect preservation. Cultural practices can also affect how well bone is preserved. Works Cited

Bernard Spilsbury Sir Bernard Henry Spilsbury (16 May 1877 – 17 December 1947) was a British pathologist. His cases include Hawley Harvey Crippen, the Seddon case and Major Armstrong poisonings, the "Brides in the Bath" murders by George Joseph Smith, Louis Voisin, Jean-Pierre Vaquier, the Crumbles murders, Norman Thorne, Donald Merrett, the Podmore case, the Sidney Harry Fox matricide, Alfred Rouse, Elvira Barney, Tony Mancini and the Vera Page case. He also played a crucial role in the development of Operation Mincemeat, a deception operation during World War II which saved thousands of lives of Allied service personnel. Personal life[edit] Spilsbury was born on 16 May 1877 at 35 Bath Street, Leamington Spa, Warwickshire. On 3 September 1908, Spilsbury married Edith Caroline Horton. The deaths (of Peter, in particular) were a blow from which Spilsbury never truly recovered. Career[edit] Important cases[edit] Scar tissue used in evidence at the Crippen trial, alleged to be that of Cora Crippen. Legacy[edit]

Forensic entomological decomposition Medicolegal entomology is a branch of forensic entomology that applies the study of insects to criminal investigations, and is commonly used in death investigations for estimating the post-mortem interval (PMI).[1][2] One method of obtaining this estimate uses the time and pattern of arthropod colonization.[3] This method will provide an estimation of the period of insect activity, which may or may not correlate exactly with the time of death.[1] While insect successional data may not provide as accurate an estimate during the early stages of decomposition as developmental data, it is applicable for later decompositional stages and can be accurate for periods up to a few years.[4] Decomposition[edit] A decaying carcass provides "a temporarily, rapidly changing resource which supports a large, dynamic arthropod community." --M. Grassberger and C. Frank Fresh Stage[edit] Pig carcass in the fresh stage of decomposition Adult ants may also be seen at a carcass during the fresh stage. Access