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Application of Psychological concepts of Reinforcement and Punishment by Traffic Police to promote Road Safety

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Traffic police perform their duties diligently to ensure road safety. There are many approaches to ensure road safety such as education, engagement and enforcement.

As such, traffic police can apply psychological concepts of reinforcement and punishment to promote road safety to enhance the effectiveness of their jobs. Operant Conditioning. Aspects of Operant Conditioning. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning: Rewards & Punishments. Punishment. Reinforcement. Reinforcement & Punishment. Reinforcement Schedules. Learning: Schedules of Reinforcement. Situation of Traffic Accident in Singapore. Fatal accidents, road deaths hit record low last year, Latest Singapore News.

While the number of fatal accidents and road deaths last year dropped to a record low since records began in 1981, Traffic Police Commander Gerald Lim said more can be done. Senior Assistant Commissioner (SAC) Lim said the 2.05 road traffic fatalities for every 100,000 population last year were considered "very good" compared with regional statistics. "We are doing well," he said at the release of the Annual Road Traffic Situation 2019 report at the Road Safety Community Park yesterday. Road accident statistics in Singapore 2020. Last Updated: January, 2020.

Road accident statistics in Singapore 2020

Latest available data from May, 2019. Highlights There were 7,690 road accidents involving injuries in 2018120 people were killed in traffic accidents in 2018Elderly pedestrians accounted for two-thirds of all pedestrian fatalities. (1 in 2 accidents involving elderly pedestrians was due to jaywalking)Motorcyclists and pillion riders account for about 1 in 2 of overall road fatalities73% of heavy vehicle drivers speed when traffic is lightSingapore’s road fatality rate of 2.73 per 100,000 citizens is higher than London, Hong Kong and Tokyo. Deaths per 100,000 people Singapore’s road traffic fatality rate per 100,000 population went down significantly from 2010 to 2016. Fewer fatalities, injuries from traffic accidents in first half of the year. SINGAPORE: There were fewer fatalities and injuries as a result of traffic accidents in the first half of this year, the police said in a news release on Tuesday (Aug 18), adding that this is "likely" due to the COVID-19 "circuit breaker" period.

Fewer fatalities, injuries from traffic accidents in first half of the year

Overall, the number of traffic accidents resulting in fatalities or injuries fell by 33.1 per cent, from 3,832 in the first half of last year to 2,565 in the same period this year. The number of people injured in traffic accidents fell by 37.3 per cent to 3,021. Fifty people died in traffic accidents in the first half of this year, a 15.3 per cent drop from the 59 people in the same period last year. "The decrease in road traffic accidents and fatalities is likely due to the COVID-19 circuit breaker period, when there was less traffic on the roads," said the police. Situation of Traffic Accident in the World. Road Traffic Injuries & Deaths: A Global Problem. Road traffic injuries. Every year the lives of approximately 1.35 million people are cut short as a result of a road traffic crash.

Road traffic injuries

Between 20 and 50 million more people suffer non-fatal injuries, with many incurring a disability as a result of their injury. Road traffic injuries cause considerable economic losses to individuals, their families, and to nations as a whole. These losses arise from the cost of treatment as well as lost productivity for those killed or disabled by their injuries, and for family members who need to take time off work or school to care for the injured.

Road traffic crashes cost most countries 3% of their gross domestic product. Road Traffic Accidents Death Rate By Country 1990 - 2019. Common causes of Traffic Accidents. Top 25 Causes of Car Accidents. Getting into a car accident can lead to several unwanted consequences, including permanent injuries, loss of earnings, etc.

Top 25 Causes of Car Accidents

Why not do everything you can to avoid a car accident in the first place then? Here at our San Diego personal injury law offices we would like to help you understand the causes of car accidents, and therefore help you learn preventative measures for automobile accidents. While some of these car accident causes may seem obvious and redundant to experienced drivers, this list aims to educate all levels of drivers, from the teenage driver who just got his license, to the senior driver with 40 years experience behind the wheel. Learning to drive a car takes many instructional hours behind the wheel, especially if that driver wants to avoid causing automobile accidents.

Let our Top 25 Causes of Car Accidents be your guide towards a lifetime of car accident prevention not just in San Diego, but anywhere. Top 10 reasons that causes road accidents (Must Watch) Impacts of Traffic Accidents. Health and social consequences of road traffic accidents. Road Deaths and Injuries Hold Back Economic Growth in Developing Countries. WASHINGTON, January 9, 2018—A new World Bank study, funded by Bloomberg Philanthropies, finds that reducing road traffic deaths and injuries could result in substantial long-term income gains for low- and middle-income countries.

Road Deaths and Injuries Hold Back Economic Growth in Developing Countries

The report, “The High Toll of Traffic Injuries: Unacceptable and Preventable,” introduces a new global methodology to calculate the economic impact of road safety and analyses the cases of China, India, the Philippines, Tanzania and Thailand. While there is general recognition of road traffic injuries and fatalities, little is known about the link between road traffic injuries and economic growth. The new report quantifies how investments in road safety are also an investment in human capital. The study finds that countries that do not invest in road safety could miss out on anywhere between 7 and 22% in potential per capita GDP growth over a 24-year period. Psychological consequences of road traffic accidents in children. Questionnaire information about possible psychological changes in the months following their accident was obtained for 45 school age children who had attended an Accident and Emergency Department because of their involvement in road traffic accidents.

Psychological consequences of road traffic accidents in children

Central nervous system involvement was rare in this group. Short-term psychological consequences were common, but even after 4–7 months 33% were considered by their parents to still have a moderate reaction and a further 11% were considered to be severely affected. The children had high levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms, particularly avoidance in over 50%. Travel anxiety was described in 39%, 23% were depressed and 14% highly anxious – features which were considered by parents to have appeared following the accident, often with increasing disturbance over time.

Other apparent repercussions were nightmares and other sleep difficulties in 17%, accident related fears, irritability, anger and emotionally regressed behaviour. Applications of Positive Punishment by Traffic Police. 13nov2018 singapore traffic police taking action against heavy vehicles whom flout traffic rules. Higher fines for motorists, pedestrians and cyclists from April: MHA.

SINGAPORE: The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) will raise fines for road traffic offences starting Apr 1, in a bid to strengthen deterrence against irresponsible driving.

Higher fines for motorists, pedestrians and cyclists from April: MHA

In a press release on Thursday (Feb 21), MHA said that raising composition sums, or fines, would ensure that they remain effective as a deterrent and curb the uptrend in road traffic offences. "It is important to nip unsafe driving in the bud, before serious accidents happen and people are killed or hurt," said MHA. In Finland, speeding tickets are linked to your income.

Around 3,400 people die in traffic crashes every day, leading to around 1.25 million deaths globally each year.

In Finland, speeding tickets are linked to your income

One-third of these deaths are caused by speeding, according to the World Health Organization. With road traffic crashes the leading cause of death among young people, some countries are coming up with innovative ways to stop people speeding. In Finland, speeding fines are linked to salary. The Finns run a “day fine” system that is calculated on the basis of an offender’s daily disposable income – generally their daily salary divided by two. The more a driver is over the speed limit, the greater the number of day fines they will receive. This has led to headline-grabbing fines when wealthy drivers have been caught driving very fast. Activation: Mumbai Traffic Police says ‘honk more wait more’, Marketing & Advertising News, ET BrandEquity.

Mumbai is one of the noisiest cities in the world and a lot of this noise can be traced back to cacophony at the signals.

activation: Mumbai Traffic Police says ‘honk more wait more’, Marketing & Advertising News, ET BrandEquity

As is commonly observed on Mumbai roads, Mumbaikars honk even when the signal is red! Needless to say, this noise pollution is making the city alarmingly unhealthy to live in. To tackle this honking menace, the Mumbai Traffic Police, in partnership with FCB Interface came up with an innovative solution called The Punishing Signal. Special decibel meters were connected to traffic signals across the island city. When the decibel exceeded a dangerous 85dB, the signal timer would reset itself, forcing the people to wait longer at the signal, thus ‘punishing’ them for their impatience. “Honking is bad habit and an act of traffic indiscipline.

To change your tomorrow, we must change our habits today! Shedding light on the creative idea, Robby Mathew, chief creative officer, FCB Interface, said, “Sometimes, the stick works better than the carrot. Applications of Negative Punishment by Traffic Police. Parliament: Recalcitrant drink-drivers to face lifetime driving ban under stiffer penalties proposed to Road Traffic Act, Politics News.

SINGAPORE - Recalcitrant motorists who drive under the influence of alcohol or drugs could face a lifetime ban from driving and also double the jail time, under proposed changes to the Road Traffic Act that would also stiffen penalties for dangerous and careless driving offences. For instance, minimum mandatory sentences for dangerous driving causing death and grievous hurt, as well as additional penalties for offenders who did so while under the influence of alcohol and drugs, were also among changes proposed in Parliament on Monday (May 6).

Under the Road Traffic (Amendment) Bill, road users who drive under the influence of drugs or alcohol will face double the penalties that are currently stipulated in law. Currently, those convicted can face up to six months in jail or be fined between $1,000 and $5,000 for the first offence. For the second offence, they can be jailed for a maximum of one year and fined between $3,000 and $10,000. Lifetime Driving Bans in the UK. By: Garry Crystal - Updated: 14 Dec 2019| *Discuss Lifetime driving bans are usually given for the most serious driving offences.

Lifetime Driving Bans in the UK

This can include causing death by dangerous driving, an offence that can also result in a prison sentence. Dangerous Driving and Disqualifications Dangerous driving is one of the most serious traffic offences. Applications of Positive Reinforcement by Traffic Police. Traffic Police looking at incentives instead of deterrents for safer driving. Traffic Police officers issuing a summons to the driver (right) of a trailer for not wearing safety belt, during a three-and-a-half hour operation in the Tuas area targetting heavy vehicle offenders -- PHOTO : ST, SEAH KWANG PENG When the Traffic Police stop a motorist on the road in future, the slip they hand out may be a petrol voucher for good driving, instead of a summons for a violation. An appeal against a penalty for a traffic violation may also only be granted for "extenuating conditions" such as medical emergencies.

Drive Courteously, Get Free Petrol From TP – Five Stars And a Moon. Singapore Traffic Police are rewarding drivers who display good behaviour on roads. You don’t need to be rewarded for being courteous or having a decent attitude to other drivers, but a recent initiative has upped the ante and might perhaps change a few driving habits. The programme has been in effect since October 2013 with 391 motorists being rewarded for their good road graces. Mr Lim was one of seven who was recently rewarded for his courtesy as he gave way to fellow motorist along Upp Changi Road yesterday morning. Mr Lim was pulled over by Traffic Police, a puzzled and slightly anxious Mr Lim complied only to be rewarded for giving way to someone else who was trying to cut into his lane.

Reward from Traffic Police. Positive Reinforcement to Encourage Good Driving. Applications of Negative Reinforcement by Traffic Police. Safety on point: Demerit point penalties for traffic violations to start. PHUKET: Phuket Provincial Police Deputy Commander Col Phakin Na-ranong, who also serves as the island’s Traffic Police Chief, has confirmed that the points-based system of penalties for those caught breaking traffic laws will begin nationwide on Dec 19. A police officer checks a motorcycle rider’s driver’s licence in Patong this week. Photo: Tanyaluk Sakoot The move is being heralded as a way to finally rein in wayward drivers of cars and motorbikes, who repeatedly flout traffic laws on the premise they can just pay the fine and continue their dangerous driving habits.

From Dec 19, police officers issuing tickets for moving violations will update the details of the fine, including which driver has been caught, to a national database which every police station in the country will be able to access, Col Phakin explained. “The system used is the same one that used in issuing e-tickets, which is already connected to the Department of Land Transport database. TODAYonline. Japan Traffic Violations: Demerit Point System & Ticket Colors - PLAZA HOMES.

Tips for Road Safety. Road Safety Tips. 8 Smart Ways To Promote Safe Driving - Friends Drive Sober.