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Traffic police: How can reinforcement and punishment be applied to promote road safety?

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Even as we certify and allow more drivers on the roads, we have to ensure road safety is observed, and other road users are able to enjoy and share the public space knowing that they are safe.

Operant Conditioning. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning: Rewards & Punishments. Positive Negative Reinforcement. Reinforcement. Punishment. Continuous Schedule. Fixed Ratio Schedule. Variable Ratio Schedule. Fixed Interval Schedule. Variable Interval Schedule. Schedules of Reinforcement. Reinforcement preferred over punishments. Why compliments make us feel so good. Your haircut looks great.

Why compliments make us feel so good

Your speech was so moving. You are a really good friend; I can’t tell you how great it was to talk last week when I was upset. Compliments make us feel good — both giving and receiving them. Feeling valued and appreciated are basic human needs, explains Marcia Naomi Berger, a licensed clinical social worker and psychotherapist in San Rafael, California, and author of "Marriage Meetings for Lasting Love: 30 Minutes a Week to the Relationship You've Always Wanted". Appreciation is also foundational in relationships, both those with our partners and spouses and with our friends, Berger adds. Compliments help us communicate that appreciation we feel toward one another. Being in the habit of giving compliments helps us notice and appreciate what’s good and what we like in those around us. Compliments also help us like one another, Berger adds.

In this way and others it’s not just the receiver who walks away better off. Not all compliments land the same. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Reinforcement and Punishment - How do they work? Types of road users - who are they? Cyclist road safety practices. SINGAPORE - She was cycling down a main road in November 2017 when suddenly, a car from a side road accelerated and hit her. Fortunately, national cyclist Chelsie Tan, who had the right of way, reacted quickly and prevented a potentially serious accident. "We came into contact, but I pushed myself off from the car body and, fortunately, I didn't fall," said the 29-year-old.

"After that incident, I learnt that it's important not to assume that drivers are aware of you and will react accordingly. " In February, new regulations for cyclists and users of personal mobility devices (PMDs) came into force to create a safer environment for all road users. One such regulation is the compulsory use of a helmet. Tan explains that while many cyclists wear helmets, some do not wear it correctly. "Some people wear it in a way that the helmet doesn't cover their forehead and the strap is too loose," she said. Some tips that she shared for cyclists ahead of the May 11-12 OCBC Cycle at the Sports Hub include: Drivers road safety practices.

Public Street Lighting Currently, street lights operate at pre-programmed seasonal sunrise and sunset timings.

Drivers road safety practices

In the event of bad weather, motorists should switch on their vehicle headlights for better visibility. By 2022, LTA will implement the Remote Control and Monitoring System (RCMS) which will allow for more responsive street lighting. With the RCMS, LTA can remotely control street lights in response to inclement weather. The RCMS can also detect faults automatically, making maintenance more responsive and efficient. Pedestrian road safety practices. As a road user group, pedestrians formed the second largest group of road traffic fatalities, behind motorcyclists and pillion riders.

Pedestrian road safety practices

In most cases, the pedestrians were either crossing heedless of traffic or had failed to use available pedestrian crossing. Following these tips will enhance pedestrian safety: ALWAYS USE PEDESTRIAN CROSSINGS like overhead bridges, zebra crossings, underpasses and traffic signal lights. RAISE A HAND WHILE CROSSING to alert motorists. USE FOOTPATHS and other walkways whenever possible DO NOT CROSS AT ROAD BENDS, as your visual field is limited in this part of the road.

When a pedestrian is knocked down by an oncoming vehicle, the force from the initial impact causes the primary injury, often on the lower limbs. Fines for all - Positive Punishment. SINGAPORE: The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) will raise fines for road traffic offences starting Apr 1, in a bid to strengthen deterrence against irresponsible driving.

Fines for all - Positive Punishment

In a press release on Thursday (Feb 21), MHA said that raising composition sums, or fines, would ensure that they remain effective as a deterrent and curb the uptrend in road traffic offences. "It is important to nip unsafe driving in the bud, before serious accidents happen and people are killed or hurt," said MHA. READ: More drink-driving accidents, motorists running red lights: Police. Pedestrians and Cyclists - Positive Punishment. Drivers - Positive Punishment. Continuous Schedules. Offences resulting in revocation of licences. The number of traffic offences committed in Singapore have been constantly high.

Offences resulting in revocation of licences

In 2016, 4,532 traffic violations were recorded, with more people caught breaking traffic laws in the first 9 months of 2016, almost triple that of the same period in 2015. Certificate of Merit - Fixed Interval Positive Reinforcement. Driver Car Decal – Fixed Interval Positive Reinforcement. To encourage good road safety behaviour, the Traffic Police is partnering with Singapore Road Safety Council and Shell Singapore in a new commendation initiative.

Driver Car Decal – Fixed Interval Positive Reinforcement

All license holders who have maintained a demerit-free status over the last five years will be receiving a Letter of Commendation from the Traffic Police. Motorist can present their letter and redeem a Badge of Honour decal or sticker at any Shell petrol station from 27 July to 30 September. More than 1.2 million license-holders will qualify for this Demerit Free Driver decal. If you qualify, you should redeem your decal soon. Display the Badge of Honour on your vehicle and you could win a goodie bag worth $80 if you are spotted at Shell. Fixed Interval Schedule. Reinforcement recommendations for motorists. Positive Punishments for motorists. Targeting of pedestrians and cyclists.