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All things related to the topics that are taught within geography.

Challenges of urbanisation in Africa. If Africa’s development is handled wisely, it can bring about unprecedented transformation in the continent.

Challenges of urbanisation in Africa

Among the world’s all continents, Africa is the least urbanised: in 2010, it was estimated that only about 36% of the continent was ‘urban.’ This is comparable with India’s urbanisation levels, which stand slightly lower — in 2011, it was estimated that 32% of the country was ‘urban.’ However, despite having the lowest urbanisation in the world, the rate at which Africa is being urbanised — around 3.5 % per year over the last two decades, which is expected to hold till 2050 — is the most rapid in the world. This will propel it to become a major urban landmass in the next 15 to 20 years.

If Africa’s development is handled wisely, it can bring about unprecedented transformation in the country — higher economic growth, reduction of poverty, better economic equality and a much higher standard of living and quality of life are all likely outcomes. Visualizing the Economics of Coffee in One Chart. What goes into your morning cup of coffee, and what makes it possible?

Visualizing the Economics of Coffee in One Chart

The obvious answer might be coffee beans, but when you start to account for additional costs, the scope of a massive $200+ billion coffee supply chain becomes clear. From the labor of growing, exporting, and roasting the coffee plants to the materials like packaging, cups, and even stir sticks, there are many underlying costs that factor into every cup of coffee consumed. The above graphic breaks down the costs incurred by retail coffee production for one pound of coffee, equivalent to about 15 cups of 16 ounce brewed coffee. The Difficulty of Pricing Coffee Measuring and averaging out a global industry is a complicated ordeal. Not only do global coffee prices constantly fluctuate, but each country also has differences in availability, relative costs, and the final price of a finished product.

That’s why a cup of 16 oz brewed coffee in the U.S. doesn’t cost the same in the U.K., or Japan, or anywhere else in the world. We’re endlessly told why populism works. Now see how it might fail. We’re endlessly told why populism works. Now see how it might fail. We’re endlessly told why populism works. Now see how it might fail. White working-class pupils suffering due to 'status deficit', MPs told. MPs investigating underachievement among disadvantaged white pupils in England have been told that the communities they come from are suffering “a status deficit” and the use of terms like “white privilege” could create further problems.

White working-class pupils suffering due to 'status deficit', MPs told

Prof Matthew Goodwin, who has written on populism, immigration and Euroscepticism, was giving evidence to a virtual hearing of the Commons cross-party education committee. He told MPs the national conversation in the last 10 years had become “much more consumed with other groups” and disadvantaged white families felt they were not afforded the same recognition, respect and esteem as others.

White pupils from poor communities – in particular boys – perform worse on average at school than their peers from most other ethnic backgrounds.


To understand how rich billionaires really are, use this calculator. We all know Jeff Bezos is very rich – but wouldn’t you love to know how long it would take him to, for example, earn your entire years’ salary, tackle your entire student debt or pay off your mortgage?

To understand how rich billionaires really are, use this calculator

A new website will you give you these exact numbers, as they apply to Bezos and 14 other tech moguls. The company – a text messaging company – says it uses data on salary, bonuses, earnings from equity and other forms of compensation from 2019 SEC filings to let you calculate just how quickly people like Mark Zuckerberg of Facebook, Susan Wojcicki of YouTube and Reed Hastings of Netflix could pay off all of your expenses. JK Rowling joins 150 public figures decrying 'cancel culture'

Image copyright Reuters Some 150 writers, academics and activists - including authors JK Rowling, Salman Rushdie and Margaret Atwood - have signed an open letter denouncing so-called cancel culture.

JK Rowling joins 150 public figures decrying 'cancel culture'

They say they applaud a recent "needed reckoning" on racial justice, but argue it has fuelled stifling of open debate. The letter denounces "a vogue for public shaming and ostracism" and "a blinding moral certainty". Cancel culture refers to online shaming of individuals who cause offence. Facebook is out of control. If it were a country it would be North Korea. There is no power on this earth that is capable of holding Facebook to account.

Facebook is out of control. If it were a country it would be North Korea

No legislature, no law enforcement agency, no regulator. Congress has failed. The EU has failed. When the Federal Trade Commission fined it a record $5bn for its role in the Cambridge Analytica scandal, its stock price actually went up. Sustainable fashion - is it only for the rich? Before COVID-19 hit, industry insiders already agreed that the fashion system was 'broken'.

Sustainable fashion - is it only for the rich?

If you want to save the world, veganism isn’t the answer. Veganism has rocketed in the UK over the past couple of years – from an estimated half a million people in 2016 to more than 3.5 million – 5% of our population – today.

If you want to save the world, veganism isn’t the answer

Influential documentaries such as Cowspiracy and What the Health have thrown a spotlight on the intensive meat and dairy industry, exposing the impacts on animal and human health and the wider environment. But calls for us all to switch entirely to plant-based foods ignore one of the most powerful tools we have to mitigate these ills: grazing and browsing animals. Rather than being seduced by exhortations to eat more products made from industrially grown soya, maize and grains, we should be encouraging sustainable forms of meat and dairy production based on traditional rotational systems, permanent pasture and conservation grazing. The animals live in natural herds and wander wherever they please.

They wallow in streams and water-meadows. Donald Trump: TikTok users and K-pop fans said to be behind poor Tulsa turnout. Media playback is unsupported on your device Tik-Tok users and K-Pop fans were behind the smaller than expected numbers at US President Donald Trump's first campaign rally in months, social media users have claimed.

Donald Trump: TikTok users and K-pop fans said to be behind poor Tulsa turnout

Political strategist Steve Schmidt said teenagers across the US ordered tickets without intending to turn up to ensure there would be empty seats. Mr Trump had said at least one million people were expected to attend. But the Trump 2020 team denied the online campaign had affected numbers. Garden villages locking-in car dependency, says report. Image copyright Transport for new homes England’s new garden villages and towns risk becoming car-dependent commuter estates, a report has warned.

Garden villages locking-in car dependency, says report

The government promised the sites would be thriving communities - with jobs, shops and recreational facilities. But research has suggested the garden villages may be little better than the reviled edge-of town estates they were supposed to supersede. The government said the report was unfair because the settlements were still in their early stages. But the researchers said they believed the 20 garden communities they assessed - still in various stages of the planning process - would create up to 200,000 households dependent on driving. : UK economy could be worst hit among leading nations, says OECD.

Image copyright Getty Images The UK is likely to be the hardest hit by Covid-19 among major economies, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development has warned. Britain's economy is likely to slump by 11.5% in 2020, slightly outstripping falls in countries such as Germany, France, Spain and Italy, it said. If there were a second peak in the pandemic, the UK economy could contract by as much as 14%. "The crisis will cast a long shadow over the world," the OECD added. It said that in what it called a "single-hit scenario", with no second peak, there could be contractions of 11.4% in France, 11.1% in Spain, 11.3% in Italy and 6.6% in Germany.

Scoop.upworthy. Trigger Warning: Racism, Police Brutality Over the past couple of weeks, a game where people raise all ten fingers and put one down each time they've done something in a list has been going viral. People have been playing different versions of this, such as a mother-child edition wherein both mom and child test out many stereotypical things they've done. It's basically "never have I ever" for the virtual age. In a more recent "check your privilege" iteration, people are finding out just how easy - or difficult - their lives have been due to this invisible thing called privilege.

Privilege, as a concept, is the result of your identity and the socioeconomic groups you belong to. Birling Gap: Warning after visitors pictured walking near cliff edges. Image copyright Eddie Mitchell People have been standing near cliff edges and posing for pictures prompting warnings from patrolling coastguards. Large numbers of visitors travelled to the south coast on Monday and pictures from Birling Gap in East Sussex show people standing on the chalk cliffs.


BRICs. Plastic. Cyclone Idai: What's the role of climate change? Image copyright Getty Images Unless a rich benefactor steps in, the role of human-induced climate change in Cyclone Idai is unlikely to be clearly determined. The scientists with the expertise simply don't have the resources to do the large amount of computer modelling required. However, there are a number of conclusions about rising temperatures that researchers have gleaned from previous studies on tropical cyclones in the region. MPs debate climate after school strike – but only a handful turn up. Am I the only one who’s terrified about the warm weather? We shouldn’t be enjoying a heatwave in February – this is what climate breakdown feels like. This weekend my beautiful Brighton constituency was even more stunning than usual. Environment in multiple crises - report. Image copyright Getty Images Politicians and policymakers have failed to grasp the gravity of the environmental crisis facing the Earth, a report claims.

'Remarkable' decline in fertility rates. Image copyright Getty Images. Hans Rosling, population prophet: Five final thoughts. The diet to save lives, the planet and feed us all? Image copyrightGetty Images A diet has been developed that promises to save lives, feed 10 billion people and all without causing catastrophic damage to the planet.

Climate change: Which vegan milk is best? The popularity of vegan foods continues to grow, with January seen as a traditional time to consider giving them a try. Climate change: LED lights could dent UK energy demand. Anak Krakatau: Indonesian volcano's dramatic collapse. Image copyright Reuters. Syrian refugees: The people who want four things before they go home. Image copyright Getty Images. Indonesia tsunami: How a volcano can be the trigger. Fears of new Indonesia tsunami as Anak Krakatau volcano seethes. Climate change: The massive CO2 emitter you may not know about. Climate change: COP24 deal to bring Paris pact to life. Meat or two veg? Find out your food's climate footprint.

Queensland bushfires: The town spared an 'uncharted' catastrophe. Climate crisis - how can I help? Climate change: Where we are in seven charts and what you can do to help. Climate change: Can 12 billion tonnes of carbon be sucked from the air? Why Your Palm Oil Boycott May Not Be The Best Way to Save The Environment. 8 things to know about palm oil. Large hydropower dams 'not sustainable' in the developing world. Five products you didn't know were harming the environment. Climate change: Five cheap ways to remove CO2 from the atmosphere.

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