Filmmaking Parts Film production consists of five major stages: Development — The first stage in which the ideas for the film are created, rights to books/plays are bought etc., and the screenplay is written. Financing for the project has to be sought and greenlit.Pre-production—Preparations are made for the shoot, in which cast and film crew are hired, locations are selected, and sets are built.Production—The raw elements for the film are recorded during the film shoot.Post-production—The images, sound, and visual effects of the recorded film are edited.Distribution—The finished film is distributed and screened in cinemas and/or released to home video. Development Next, a screenwriter writes a screenplay over a period of several months. Once all parties have met and the deal has been set, the film may proceed into the pre-production period. Pre-production Main article: Pre-production In pre-production, every step of actually creating the film is carefully designed and planned.
Master shot Historically, the master shot was arguably the most important shot of any given scene. All shots in a given scene were somehow related to what was happening in the master shot. This is one reason some of the films from the 1930s and 1940s are considered "stagey" by today's standards. By the 1960s and 1970s, the style of film shooting and editing shifted to include radical angles that conveyed more subjectivity and intimacy within the scenes. Today, the master shot is still an extremely important element of film production, but scenes are not built around the master shot in the same way that they were when professional filmmaking was in its infancy. Footnotes Bibliography Ascher, Steven, and Edward Pincus. Special effect A methane bubble bursting The illusions or tricks of the eye used in the film, television, theatre, video game, and simulator industries to simulate the imagined events in a story or virtual world are traditionally called special effects (often abbreviated as SFX, SPFX, or simply FX). Special effects are traditionally divided into the categories of optical effects and mechanical effects. Mechanical effects (also called practical or physical effects) are usually accomplished during the live-action shooting. Since the 1990s, computer generated imagery (CGI) has come to the forefront of special effects technologies. Developmental history Early development In 1856, Oscar Rejlander created the world's first "trick photograph" by combining different sections of 30 negatives into a single image. Not only the first use of trickery in the cinema, it was the first type of photographic trickery only possible in a motion picture, i.e. the "stop trick". Color Era Planning and use
Storyboard A storyboard is a graphic organizer in the form of illustrations or images displayed in sequence for the purpose of pre-visualizing a motion picture, animation, motion graphic or interactive media sequence. The storyboarding process, in the form it is known today, was developed at Walt Disney Productions during the early 1930s, after several years of similar processes being in use at Walt Disney and other animation studios. Origins The storyboarding process can be very time-consuming and intricate. Many large budget silent films were storyboarded but most of this material has been lost during the reduction of the studio archives during the 1970s. The form widely known today was developed at the Walt Disney studio during the early 1930s. Storyboarding became popular in live-action film production during the early 1940s, and grew into a standard medium for previsualization of films. Usage Film Theatre A common misconception is that storyboards are not used in theatre.
Motion graphic design Motion Graphic Design is a subset of graphic design in that it uses graphic design principles in a filmmaking or video production context (or other temporally evolving visual medium) through the use of animation or filmic techniques. Examples include the kinetic typography and graphics you see as the titles for a film, or opening sequences for television or the spinning, web-based animations, three-dimensional station identification logo for a television channel. Although this art form has been around for decades, it has taken quantum leaps forward in recent years in terms of technical sophistication. Technology Recently, motion graphics design needs more than a few tools and practices to be created smoothly. Tools like Maxon Cinema4D has integrated tools to create Motion Graphics, such as the native MoGraph plugin, or ICE of Softimage that can also be used for similar purposes. See also
Compositing Four images of the same subject with original backgrounds removed and placed over a new background Compositing is the combining of visual elements from separate sources into single images, often to create the illusion that all those elements are parts of the same scene. Live-action shooting for compositing is variously called "chroma key", "blue screen", "green screen" and other names. Today, most, though not all, compositing is achieved through digital image manipulation. Basic procedure All compositing involves the replacement of selected parts of an image with other material, usually, but not always, from another image. Typical applications In television studios, blue or green screens may back news-readers to allow the compositing of stories behind them, before being switched to full-screen display. Physical compositing In physical compositing the separate parts of the image are placed together in the photographic frame and recorded in a single exposure. Matting
Cinematic techniques Basic definitions of terms Aerial shot: A shot taken from a plane, helicopter or a person on top of a building. Not necessarily a moving shot. Backlighting: The main source of light is behind the subject, silhouetting it, and directed toward the camera. Bridging shot: A shot used to cover a jump in time or place or other discontinuity. Camera angle: The angle at which the camera is pointed at the subject: Low High Tilt. Cut: The splicing of two shots together. Cross-cutting: Cutting between different sets of action that can be occurring simultaneously or at different times, (this term is used synonymously but somewhat incorrectly with parallel editing.) Continuity cuts: These are cuts that take us seamlessly and logically from one sequence or scene to another. Deep focus: A technique in which objects very near the camera as well as those far away are in focus at the same time. Dolly: A set of wheels and a platform upon which the camera can be mounted to give it mobility. Sound
Vidéo-jockey Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Exemple de prestation de Vjing. Un vidéo-jockey (anglicisme), abrégé sous le sigle VJ, est une personne qui est à l'origine d'une animation visuelle projetée sans plus d'indications sur les techniques utilisées ou les choix graphiques effectués. Le VJing est un terme large qui désigne la performance visuelle en temps réel. Dans les pays anglophones, le terme a été popularisé par MTV qui utilisait le terme de VJ pour désigner la personne qui animait et présentait les diffusions de clips vidéo, mais ses origines datent des clubs new-yorkais des années 70,. Le sigle VJ vient de la contraction du mot latin « video » (« je vois ») et de l'anglais « jockey » (conduire, manœuvrer), s'inspirant ainsi du terme DJ, propre à la musique. §Historique[modifier | modifier le code] Historiquement le VJing fait référence à des formes artistiques qui mélangent l'image et le son. §Projection assistée par ordinateur[modifier | modifier le code]
Blocking (stage) In contemporary theatre, the director usually determines blocking during rehearsal, telling actors where they should move for the proper dramatic effect, ensure sight lines for the audience and work with the lighting design of the scene. It is especially important for the stage manager to note the actors' positions, as a director is not usually present for each performance of a play and it becomes the stage manager's job to ensure that actors follow the assigned blocking from night to night. By extension, the term is sometimes used in the context of cinema to speak of the arrangement of actors in the frame. In this context, there is also a need to consider the movement of the camera as part of the blocking process (see Cinematography). House left/right are from the audience's perspective The stage itself has been given named areas to facilitate blocking. In France, stage left is referred to as côté cour (court side). Jump up ^ Novak, Elaine Adams; Novak, Deborah (1996).