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Greco-Roman Death Deities

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Dis Pater. Defixio tablet (mid-first century B.C.) invoking Dis pater for a binding spell It is often thought that Dis Pater was also a Celtic god.

Dis Pater

This confusion arises from the second-hand citation of one of Julius Caesar's comments in his Commentaries on the Gallic Wars VI:18, where he says that the Gauls all claimed descent from Dis Pater. This, however, is of course an example of interpretatio romana: what Caesar meant was that the Gauls all claimed descent from a Gaulish god similar to the Roman Dis Pater, that is, a chthonic deity associated with prosperity and fertility. Different possible candidates exist for this role in Celtic religion, such as Gaulish Sucellus, Irish Donn and Welsh Beli Mawr, among others.

Etymology[edit] Mythology[edit] Worship[edit] In 249 BC and 207 BC, the Roman Senate under Senator Lucius Catelli ordained special festivals to appease Dis Pater and Proserpina. See also[edit] Erebus. In Greek literature the name Erebus is also used of a region of the Greek underworld where the dead pass immediately after dying, and is sometimes used interchangeably with Tartarus.[3][4][5][6][7] The perceived meaning of Erebus is "darkness"; the first recorded instance of it was "place of darkness between earth and Hades".

Erebus

Hebrew עֶרֶב (ˤerev) 'sunset, evening' is sometimes cited as a source.[3][8] However, an Indo-European origin, at least for the name Ἔρεβος itself, is more likely. The Roman writer Hyginus, in his Fabulae, described Erebus as the father of Geras, the god of old age.[10] References[edit] Notes Jump up ^ Ἔρεβος. Sources External links[edit] Hades. Names and epithets As with almost every name for the gods, the origin of Hades's name is obscure.

Hades

The name as it came to be known in classical times was Ἅιδης, Hāidēs. Hecate. Name[edit] The etymology of the name Hecate (Ἑκάτη, Hekátē) is not known .

Hecate

Suggested derivations include: From the Greek word for 'will'.[8]From Ἑκατός Hekatos, an obscure epithet of Apollo.[9] This has been translated as "she that operates from afar", "she that removes or drives off",[10] "the far reaching one" or "the far-darter".[11]the name of the Egyptian goddess of childbirth, Heqet, has been compared.[12] In Early Modern English, the name was also pronounced disyllabic and sometimes spelled Hecat. It remained common practice in English to pronounce her name in two syllables, even when spelled with final e, well into the 19th century. Macaria. Macaria or Makaria (Greek Μακαρία) is the name of two figures from ancient Greek religion and mythology.

Macaria

Although they are not said to be the same and are given different fathers, they are discussed together in a single entry both in the 10th-century Byzantine encyclopedia the Suda and by Zenobius.[1] Daughter of Heracles[edit] Arriving at the gates of Athens with his army, Eurystheus gives Demophon an ultimatum, threatening war upon Athens unless Demophon surrenders Heracles's children.

When Demophon refuses and begins to prepare for war, an oracle informs him that Athens will be victorious only if a noble maiden is sacrificed to Persephone. Melinoe. Name[edit] Melinoë may derive from Greek mēlinos (μήλινος), "having the color of quince," from mēlon (μῆλον), "tree fruit".[6] The fruit's yellowish-green color evoked the pallor of illness or death for the Greeks.

Melinoe

A name derived from melas, "black," would be melan-, not melin-.[7] Mors (mythology) Mors (Death) coming for a miser in a painting by Bosch Mors is often represented allegorically in later Western literature and art, particularly during the Middle Ages.

Mors (mythology)

Orcus. Origins The origins of Orcus may have lain in Etruscan religion.

Orcus

The so-called Tomb of Orcus, an Etruscan site at Tarquinia, is a misnomer, resulting from its first discoverers mistaking as Orcus a hairy, bearded giant that was actually a figure of a Cyclops. Orcus was chiefly worshipped in rural areas; he had no official cult in the cities.[1] This remoteness allowed for him to survive in the countryside long after the more prevalent gods had ceased to be worshipped. Persephone. Persephone as a vegetation goddess and her mother Demeter were the central figures of the Eleusinian mysteries that predated the Olympian pantheon and promised the initiated a more enjoyable prospect after death.

Persephone

Pluto (mythology) Thanatos. In myth and poetry "And there the children of dark Night have their dwellings, Sleep and Death, awful gods.

Thanatos

The glowing Sun never looks upon them with his beams, neither as he goes up into heaven, nor as he comes down from heaven. And the former of them roams peacefully over the earth and the sea's broad back and is kindly to men; but the other has a heart of iron, and his spirit within him is pitiless as bronze: whomsoever of men he has once seized he holds fast: and he is hateful even to the deathless gods. " [3]