History - Europe - France
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Catharism ( /ˈkæθərɪzəm/ ; from Greek : καθαρός , katharos , pure) [ 1 ] was a name given to a Christian religious movement with dualistic and gnostic elements that first appeared in the historical record in the Languedoc region of France and other parts of Europe in the 11th century and flourished in the 12th and 13th centuries. In 1208, Pope Innocent III attempted to use diplomacy to end Catharism , but in that year, his papal legate Pierre de Castelnau was murdered while returning to Rome . This prompted the Pope into action and resulted in the Albigensian Crusade . Catharism had its roots in the Paulician movement in Armenia and the Bogomils of Bulgaria , which took influences from the Paulicians.
Archibald R. Lewis Introduction Part I Southern France and Carolingian Conquest, 718-778 Chapter I : Southern France in the Early Eighth Century Chapter II : The Carolingian Conquest, 718-778 Part II Southern France, Catalonia, and the Carolingian Empire, 778-828
Agnès Sorel (1422 [ 1 ] [ 2 ] – 9 February 1450), known by the sobriquet Dame de beauté , was a favourite mistress of King Charles VII of France , by whom she bore three daughters. [ 3 ] She is considered the first officially recognized royal mistress . [ 1 ] She was the subject of several contemporary paintings and works of art, including Jean Fouquet 's Virgin and Child Surrounded by Angels . [ edit ] Life in the royal court The daughter of soldier Jean Soreau and Catherine de Maignelais, Sorel was twenty years old when she was first introduced to King Charles. [ citation needed ] At that time, she was holding a position in the household of Rene I of Naples , as a maid of honour to his consort Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine .
Articles about "french revolution" French Revolution 101 - The French Revolution in brief Between 1789 and 1802 France was wracked by a revolution which radically changed the government, administration, military and culture of the nation as well ... http://europeanhistory.about.com/od/thefrenchrevolution/p/ovfrenchrev.htm Best Books on the French Revolution
Septimania in 537 Septimania ( French : Septimanie , IPA: [sɛptimani] ; Occitan : Septimània , IPA: [septiˈmanjɔ] ; Catalan : Septimània , IPA: [səptiˈmaniə] ) was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigoths in 462, when Septimania was ceded to their king, Theodoric II . Under the Visigoths it was known as simply Gallia or Narbonensis . It corresponded roughly with the modern French region of Languedoc-Roussillon .
Wife of Bernard , Duke of Septimania . The only source of information on her life is her "Liber Manualis" which was written for the education of her son William . The name Dhuoda which is indicated in the "Manual" is latinized by her as Dodana, Duodana, and Dhuodana; Dhuoda was a member of a noble family , and married , 24 June, 824, Bernard , son of St. William of Gellone , godson and favourite of King Louis the Pious , Duke of Septimania , and also, either at that time or a little later, Count of Barcelona . Her first son, William , was horn 29 November, 826, and the second, Bernard , 22 March, 841.
Santa Maria della Pieve in Arezzo Original lyrics by Petrarch, found in 1985 in Erfurt The Triumph of Death, or The 3 Fates. Flemish tapestry (probably Brussels , ca. 1510–1520).
Coordinates : Nîmes ( / n iː m / ; French: [nim] ; Provençal Occitan : Nimes ) is the capital of the Gard department in the Languedoc-Roussillon region in southern France . Nîmes has a rich history, dating back to the Roman Empire , and is a popular tourist destination. [ edit ] History The city derives its name from that of a spring in the Roman village. The contemporary coat of arms of the city of Nîmes includes a crocodile chained to a palm tree with the inscription COLNEM , for Colonia Nemausus , meaning the "colony" or "settlement" of Nemausus , the local Celtic god of the Volcae Arecomici .
Imperial Standard of Napoleon I Napoleon Bonaparte (French: Napoléon Bonaparte [napoleɔ̃ bɔnɑpaʁt] , Italian: Napoleone Buonaparte ; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the latter stages of the French Revolution and its associated wars in Europe. As Napoleon I , he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815. His legal reform, the Napoleonic Code , has been a major influence on many civil law jurisdictions worldwide, but he is best remembered for his role in the wars led against France by a series of coalitions, the so-called Napoleonic Wars .
Charlemagne ( pron.: / ˈ ʃ ɑr l ɨ m eɪ n / ; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), also known as Charles the Great ( German : Karl der Große ; [ 1 ] Latin : Carolus or Karolus Magnus ) or Charles I , was the King of the Franks from 768, the King of Italy from 774, the first Holy Roman Emperor , and the first emperor in western Europe since the collapse of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier. The oldest son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon , Charlemagne became king in 768 following the death of his father. He was initially co-ruler with his brother Carloman I . Carloman's sudden death in 771 under unexplained circumstances left Charlemagne as the undisputed ruler of the Frankish Kingdom. Through his military conquests, he subdued the Saxons and the Bavarians and pushed his frontier into Spain . He expanded his kingdom into an empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe .
Clovis ( French pronunciation: [klɔ.vis] ; c. 466 – 511), or Chlodowech ( Latin Chlodovechus ), was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs. [ 1 ] He was also the first Christian king to rule Gaul , known today as France . Clovis was the son of Childeric I , a Merovingian king of the Salian Franks , and Basina, Queen of Thuringia . He succeeded his father in 481, at the age of fifteen. [ 2 ] He is considered the founder of the Merovingian dynasty , which ruled the Franks for the next two centuries. [ edit ] History
The Franks ( Latin : Franci or gens Francorum ) were a confederation of Germanic tribes first attested in the third century AD as occupying land on the Lower and Middle Rhine . In the 3rd century some Franks raided Roman territory, while others joined the Roman troops in Gaul . The Salian Franks formed a kingdom on Roman-held soil that was acknowledged by the Romans after 357. After the collapse of imperial authority in the West, the Frankish tribes were united under the Merovingians . During the 6th century they succeeded in conquering most of Gaul. They were active in spreading Christianity over western Europe and had created one of the strongest and most stable post-roman kingdoms. [ citation needed ]
Stone tools indicate that early man was present in France at least 1.57 million years ago. [ 1 ] The first modern humans appeared in the area 40,000 years ago. The first written records for the History of France appear in the Iron Age . What is now France made up the bulk of the region known to the Romans as Gaul . Roman writers noted the presence of three main ethno-linguistic groups in the area: the Gauls , the Aquitani , and the Belgae .
Pasquale Paoli, portrait by Richard Cosway . "My eye fell upon the portrait of Pasquale Paoli, which was just as I had imagined him to be. His brow was arched and open, and his hair long and flowing ; his eyebrows thick, and bent down on the eyes, as if frequently drawn together in anger or thought. His eyes were blue, large, and lucid with intellectual light; mildness, dignity and humanity, were forcibly expressed in his beardless, frank and prepossessing countenance. " – Ferdinand Gregorovius [ 1 ] Commemorative plaque to Paoli at the monastery of Saint Anthony of Casabianca. Filippo Antonio Pasquale di Paoli ( pronounced [fiˈlippo anˈtɔnjo pasˈkwale di ˈpaoli] ; 6 April 1725 – 5 February 1807), was a Corsican patriot and leader, the president of the Executive Council of the General Diet of the People of Corsica.
The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that came to rule the Franks in a region known as Francia in Latin for 300 years from the middle of the 5th century, their territory largely corresponding to ancient Gaul as well as the Roman provinces of Raetia , Germania Superior and the southern part of Germania Magna . The Merovingian dynasty was founded by Childeric I (c.457 – 481) the son of Merovech , leader of the Salian Franks , but it was his famous son Clovis I (481 – 511) who united all of Gaul under Merovingian rule. After the death of Clovis there were frequent clashes between different branches of the family, but when threatened by its neighbours the Merovingians presented a strong united front.
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