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Roman Republic

Roman Republic
The Roman Republic (Latin: Res Pvblica Romana) was the period of the ancient Roman civilization when the government operated as a republic. It began with the overthrow of the Roman monarchy, traditionally dated around 509 BC, and its replacement by a government headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate. A complex constitution gradually developed, centered on the principles of a separation of powers and checks and balances. Except in times of dire national emergency, public offices were limited to one year, so that, in theory at least, no single individual wielded absolute power over his fellow citizens. During the first two centuries of its existence the Republic expanded through a combination of conquest and alliance, from central Italy to the entire Italian peninsula. By the following century it included North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula, Greece, and what is now southern France. Constitution[edit] Senate of the Roman Republic[edit]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Republic

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Roman Senate It was one of the most enduring institutions in Roman history, being founded in the first days of the city (traditionally founded in 753 BC). It survived the overthrow of the kings in 509 BC, the fall of the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC, the split of the Roman Empire in 395 AD, the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD, and barbarian rule of Rome in the 5th, 6th, and 7th centuries. The Senate of the West Roman Empire continued to function until 603 AD. Ancient Egypt - Ancient Civilizations for Kids North Africa Geography North Africa's landscape is covered by the world's largest hot desert--the Sahara. This massive Arid climate makes it a strange place for a large population of people. Most of the Sahara is too harsh for people to live.

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Spartacus and class struggle in ancient Rome Spartacus and class struggle in ancient Rome Graham Stevenson Roman agriculture was originally dominated by free peasants, each cultivating land for their own family needs. But, as Rome expanded its territory, the peasants were increasingly drawn away from the land for the army and huge estates created out of the individual smallholdings. In the process, some great fortunes were made. The mass of Roman citizenry became a “mob of do-nothings more abject than the former `poor whites’ in the southern country of the United States, and alongside of them developed a mode of production which was not capitalist but dependent upon slavery”.

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Phoenicians: Sailing Away The Phoenicians used cuneiform but later developed their own alphabet. This famous sequence of letters known to much of the world dates back to the 16th century B.C.E. A fairly small group of traders and merchants known as the Phoenicians created the foundation for the modern English alphabet and other alphabets. They organized a system of 22 consonants into what became the alphabet used not only by English speakers, but by speakers of many of the world's languages. Tacitus Tacitus is considered to be one of the greatest Roman historians.[1][2] He lived in what has been called the Silver Age of Latin literature. He is known for the brevity and compactness of his Latin prose, as well as for his penetrating insights into the psychology of power politics. Life[edit]

Punic Wars - Ancient History Over the next decades, Rome took over control of both Corsica and Sardinia as well, but Carthage was able to establish a new base of influence in Spain beginning in 237 B.C., under the leadership of the powerful general Hamilcar Barca and, later, his son-in-law Hasdrubal. According to Polybius and Livy in their histories of Rome, Hamilcar Barca, who died in 229 B.C., made his younger son Hannibal swear a blood oath against Rome when he was just a young boy. Upon Hasdrubal’s death in 221 B.C., Hannibal took command of Carthaginian forces in Spain. Two years later, he marched his army across the Ebro River into Saguntum, an Iberian city under Roman protection, effectively declaring war on Rome.

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