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Roman Republic

Roman Republic
The Roman Republic (Latin: Res Pvblica Romana) was the period of the ancient Roman civilization when the government operated as a republic. It began with the overthrow of the Roman monarchy, traditionally dated around 509 BC, and its replacement by a government headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate. A complex constitution gradually developed, centered on the principles of a separation of powers and checks and balances. Except in times of dire national emergency, public offices were limited to one year, so that, in theory at least, no single individual wielded absolute power over his fellow citizens. During the first two centuries of its existence the Republic expanded through a combination of conquest and alliance, from central Italy to the entire Italian peninsula. By the following century it included North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula, Greece, and what is now southern France. Constitution[edit] Senate of the Roman Republic[edit] Related:  Romestoria antica

Roman Senate It was one of the most enduring institutions in Roman history, being founded in the first days of the city (traditionally founded in 753 BC). It survived the overthrow of the kings in 509 BC, the fall of the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC, the split of the Roman Empire in 395 AD, the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD, and barbarian rule of Rome in the 5th, 6th, and 7th centuries. The Senate of the West Roman Empire continued to function until 603 AD. During the days of the kingdom, it was little more than an advisory council to the king.[1] The last king of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, was overthrown following a coup d'état led by Lucius Junius Brutus. During the early Republic, the Senate was politically weak, while the executive magistrates were quite powerful. After the transition of the Republic into the Principate, the Senate lost much of its political power as well as its prestige. Senate of the Roman Kingdom[edit] Senate of the Roman Republic[edit]

Roman Kingdom The Roman Kingdom (Latin: REGNVM ROMANVM) was the period of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a monarchical form of government of the city of Rome and its territories. Little is certain about the history of the kingdom, as nearly no written records from that time survive, and the histories about it that were written during the Republic and Empire are largely based on legends. However, the history of the Roman Kingdom began with the city's founding, traditionally dated to 753 BC with settlements around the Palatine Hill along the river Tiber in Central Italy, and ended with the overthrow of the kings and the establishment of the Republic in about 509 BC. Origin[edit] The traditional account of Roman history, which has come down to us through Livy, Plutarch, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, and others, is that in Rome's first centuries it was ruled by a succession of seven kings. Monarchy[edit] Chief Executive[edit] Chief Priest[edit] Chief Legislator[edit] Chief Judge[edit] Early Rome

Ancient Egypt - Ancient Civilizations for Kids North Africa Geography North Africa's landscape is covered by the world's largest hot desert--the Sahara. This massive Arid climate makes it a strange place for a large population of people. Most of the Sahara is too harsh for people to live. The Nile Valley, coastal areas, and the rare oases (plural for oasis) provide the only places that can support life. For thousands of years the Nile has flooded when the rainy season begins in central Africa. Early History The oldest human fossils have been found near North Africa, but the land was very different 200,000 years ago. 10,000 years ago North Africa was a grassland with many plants and animals. Egyptian Civilization Starting around 5500 BCE two major kingdoms developed along the Nile. Religion was a the center of Egyptian life. Egyptians were a very advanced civilization due to their inventions and technology. Egyptian life depended on what social class you were a part of. Ancient Egypt's History

Spartacus and class struggle in ancient Rome Spartacus and class struggle in ancient Rome Graham Stevenson Roman agriculture was originally dominated by free peasants, each cultivating land for their own family needs. It was not so much that slavery was necessarily the dominant means of production in the heyday of Rome; it may well in fact have been overshadowed to some extent in societal terms by a combination of small scale subsistence farming and by artisanal production. Intrinsically linked to the use of slavery as an economic tool was the need for constant territorial expansion. With the peasant away at the wars, more and more prisoners of war were sent back to Rome as slaves with more and more victories. With legitimate forms of protest denied them, the Roman plebeians resorted to military tactics in abortive but violent attempts to end the widespread debts and break up the latifundia. Slave rebellion before Spartacus Slaves did not have much of a common identity, except where they were a conquered people.

Ancient Rome — History.com Articles, Video, Pictures and Facts The decadence and incompetence of Commodus (180-192) brought the golden age of the Roman emperors to a disappointing end. His death at the hands of his own ministers sparked another period of civil war, from which Lucius Septimius Severus (193-211) emerged victorious. During the third century Rome suffered from a cycle of near-constant conflict. A total of 22 emperors took the throne, many of them meeting violent ends at the hands of the same soldiers who had propelled them to power. Meanwhile, threats from outside plagued the empire and depleted its riches, including continuing aggression from Germans and Parthians and raids by the Goths over the Aegean Sea. The reign of Diocletian (284-305) temporarily restored peace and prosperity in Rome, but at a high cost to the unity of the empire. The stability of this system suffered greatly after Diocletian and Maximian retired from office. Access hundreds of hours of historical video, commercial free, with HISTORY Vault.

List of Roman deities A vast number of ancient Roman deities are known by name. The most familiar today are those the Romans identified with Greek counterparts (see interpretatio graeca), integrating Greek myths, iconography, and sometimes religious practices into Roman culture, including Latin literature, Roman art, and religious life as it was experienced throughout the Empire. Many of the Romans' own gods remain obscure, known only by name and function, through inscriptions and texts that are often fragmentary—particularly those who belong to the archaic religion of the Romans dating back to the era of kings, the so-called "religion of Numa," perpetuated or revived over the centuries. Some archaic deities have Italic or Etruscan counterparts, as identified both by ancient sources and by modern scholars. Roman lists[edit] Triads[edit] Groupings of twelve[edit] Lectisternium of 217 BC[edit] Di Consentes on an altar Dii Consentes[edit] Di selecti[edit] Sabine gods[edit] Collectives[edit] Spatial tripartition[edit]

Punic Wars - Ancient History Over the next decades, Rome took over control of both Corsica and Sardinia as well, but Carthage was able to establish a new base of influence in Spain beginning in 237 B.C., under the leadership of the powerful general Hamilcar Barca and, later, his son-in-law Hasdrubal. According to Polybius and Livy in their histories of Rome, Hamilcar Barca, who died in 229 B.C., made his younger son Hannibal swear a blood oath against Rome when he was just a young boy. Upon Hasdrubal’s death in 221 B.C., Hannibal took command of Carthaginian forces in Spain. Two years later, he marched his army across the Ebro River into Saguntum, an Iberian city under Roman protection, effectively declaring war on Rome. The Second Punic War saw Hannibal and his troops–including as many as 90,000 infantry, 12,000 cavalry and a number of elephants–march from Spain across the Alps and into Italy, where they scored a string of victories over Roman troops at Ticinus, Trebia and Trasimene.

Ancient Egypt for Kids The story of ancient Egypt has survived for thousands of years. Egypt was one of the greatest civilizations of the past. The monuments and tombs of their Pharaohs continue to stand intact today, some 4,000 years later! A good portion of the Old testament takes place in or around Egypt. Egypt also plays a major role in the life of many Bible people from Moses and Joseph to Jesus. Egypt is situated in the northeast corner of the Africa. A large river called the River Nile flows through the country into the Mediterranean Sea. The Ancient Egyptians lived along the banks of the river Nile in Egypt. About 95 % of Egypt's population still live in the Nile valley (the area next to the river). Egypt is mainly made up of hot deserts and receives little rainfall. All of Egypt depended on the Nile for water, food and transportation. Before modern dams were built the river Nile would flood each year coating the land on either side of the river with thick back mud.

Roman Military Tribune A Tribune is a Legion commander who is either of Centurion rank or Senatorial status. This is the initial rank that most Legion commanders will assume upon ascending to Rome's high command. Some Senatorial Tribunes should remember that a Centurion may have more field experience than themselves and should listen to the Centurions' advice. As a sign of rank, a Tribune must wear a red cape with purple borders as his regalia. On the other hand, you are part of what makes Rome great. Go back to chart.

Phoenicians: Sailing Away The Phoenicians used cuneiform but later developed their own alphabet. This famous sequence of letters known to much of the world dates back to the 16th century B.C.E. A fairly small group of traders and merchants known as the Phoenicians created the foundation for the modern English alphabet and other alphabets. They organized a system of 22 consonants into what became the alphabet used not only by English speakers, but by speakers of many of the world's languages. The Phoenicians lived along the Mediterranean coast in what is now Lebanon. Alphabet Soup When the Phoenicians created their new alphabet, they worked from symbols that were already in use among the Semitic-speaking peoples of Canaan and Mesopotamia. The merchants and traders of Phoenicia wanted something that would not be too difficult to learn and would be quick and easy to use. The Phoenicians realized that most words were made up of only a small number of simple sounds. Trading on the High Seas

Roman Centurion You are not merely a competent soldier; you are an absolute bad-ass. Behave in and promote believable characterization through actions and raiment. You understand and can apply fundamental strategic and tactical concepts. Go back to chart. Phoenician alphabet and language Origins The Phoenician alphabet developed from the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, during the 15th century BC. Before then the Phoenicians wrote with a cuneiform script. The Phoenician alphabet was perhaps the first alphabetic script to be widely-used - the Phoenicians traded around the Mediterraean and beyond, and set up cities and colonies in parts of southern Europe and North Africa - and the origins of most alphabetic writing systems can be traced back to the Phoenician alphabet, including Greek, Etruscan, Latin, Arabic and Hebrew, as well as the scripts of India and East Asia. Notable features Type of writing system: abjad / consonant alphabet with no vowel indication Direction of writing: right to left in hortizontal lines. Used to write Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language which originated in about the 11th century BC in what is now Lebannon, Syria and Israel, an area then known as Pūt in Ancient Egyptian, Canaan in Phoenician, Hebrew and Aramaic, Phoenicia in Greek and Latin. Links

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