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Veille sanitaire Cadmium en France et en Europe

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PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-000220/2020 Amendment to Regulation (EC) No 488/2014 as regards maximum levels of cadmium in foodstuffs. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-000524/2020 Derogation for cadmium limits in inorganic fertilisers. ANSES 26/09/19 Exposition au cadmium : l’Anses propose des valeurs limites pour mieux protéger les consommateurs et les travailleurs. L'actualité a été ajouté à votre bibliothèque Actualité du 26/09/2019 Le cadmium, substance omniprésente dans notre environnement, peut entraîner des risques pour la santé de l’Homme, exposé principalement via l’alimentation.

ANSES 26/09/19 Exposition au cadmium : l’Anses propose des valeurs limites pour mieux protéger les consommateurs et les travailleurs

Afin de limiter l’exposition de la population, il apparait indispensable de maîtriser l’apport en cadmium par les activités agricoles, et en particulier lors de l’épandage de matières fertilisantes dont les engrais minéraux phosphatés. L’Anses publie ce jour ses travaux d’expertise dont les résultats visent à renforcer la protection des consommateurs, ainsi que celle des travailleurs. A cette fin, l’Agence établit une nouvelle valeur toxicologique de référence (VTR) par ingestion et recommande d’abaisser les niveaux de cadmium dans les matières fertilisantes afin de limiter l’accumulation dans les sols, le transfert vers les végétaux et in fine l’exposition des consommateurs au cadmium par la voie alimentaire.

ANSES 15/03/18 Avis relatif au «risque sanitaire lié à la consommation de gibier au regard des contaminants chimiques environnementaux (dioxines, polychlorobiphényles (PCB), cadmium et plomb)» PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-006787-17 Cadmium — discrepancy in the single market's level playing field. Environmental Research Volume 141, August 2015, Exposure determinants of cadmium in European mothers and their children. The metal cadmium (Cd) is a widespread environmental pollutant with documented adverse effects on the kidneys and bones from long-term environmental exposure, but with insufficiently elucidated public health consequences such as risk of cardiovascular disease, hormone-related cancer in adults and developmental effects in children.

Environmental Research Volume 141, August 2015, Exposure determinants of cadmium in European mothers and their children

This study is the first pan-European human biomonitoring project that succeeded in performing harmonized measurements of Cd in urine in a comparable way in mother–child couples from 16 European countries. The aim of the study was to evaluate the overall Cd exposure and significant determinants of Cd exposure. A study population of 1632 women (24–52 years of age), and 1689 children (5–12 years of age), from 32 rural and urban areas, was examined within a core period of 6 months in 2011–2012. Women were stratified as smokers and non-smokers. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-005098-17 Cadmium content in phosphate from the occupied territories of Western Sahara. Morocco is the EU’s principal source for imports of phosphate rock, one of the main components for fertiliser and listed by the EU as a critical raw material on account of the latter’s high dependence on its import.

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-005098-17 Cadmium content in phosphate from the occupied territories of Western Sahara

The main phosphate site worked by Morocco, Bou Craa, lies in the occupied territories of Western Sahara and phosphate rock mined here contains high levels of cadmium, a pollutant that builds up in soil and water and then enters the food chain where it causes health and environmental problems. It was because of this that the Commission proposed in 2016 stricter limits on cadmium content permitted in the manufacture of inorganic fertilisers bearing the CE mark. The new cadmium content levels are scheduled to come into force in 2018, which will probably mean an end to current imports of phosphate rock as they exceed the levels permitted. However, Morocco is pressing for this new limit on cadmium content levels not to go ahead. 2. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(6), 564; Evaluation of the Dietary Intake of Cadmium, Lead and Mercury and Its Relationship with Bone Health among Postmenopausal Women in Spain. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question P-001120-17 Limite pour le cadmium dans les engrais phosphatés.

The Commission has published two impact assessments to accompany its proposal for a regulation laying down rules on the availability on the market of CE marked fertilising products and amending Regulations (EC) No 1069/2009 and (EC) No 1107/2009.

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question P-001120-17 Limite pour le cadmium dans les engrais phosphatés

The impact assessment relating specifically to cadmium limits for phosphate fertilisers (SWD (2016)0064, Part 2.2), refers to the national limits currently in force for such fertilisers and states that those limits are set out in Annex I. It would seem, however, that the information in that annex is incorrect. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-006620-16 Ban on cadmium in electric and electrical equipment. Directive 2002/95/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 2003 on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment has restricted the use of six substances since 1 July 2016.

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-006620-16 Ban on cadmium in electric and electrical equipment

The toxic properties of cadmium have always been extremely well documented and that is why it is included within the scope of the directive. Cadmium has been covered by an exemption (No 39 in Annex III), the reintroduction of which was opposed by Parliament by a large majority on 20 May 2015. On the basis of that vote, the Commission ordered an expert report, the results of which were published on 27 June 2016 and offered no justification for the reintroduction of the cadmium derogation. Screen manufacturers using quantum dot technology have been trying to cut down the quantity of cadmium in their products and even develop a cadmium-free technology, given that the derogation was initially supposed to come to an end in 2010.

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question P-004667-16 Revision of the directive concerning ceramic articles intended to come into contact with foodstuffs (Council Directive 84/500/EEC of 15 October 1984) The Commission is currently planning a revision of the directive concerning ceramic articles, regulating the composition of such articles intended to come into contact with foodstuffs.

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question P-004667-16 Revision of the directive concerning ceramic articles intended to come into contact with foodstuffs (Council Directive 84/500/EEC of 15 October 1984)

The directive lays down limit values, inter alia for heavy metals such as lead and cadmium. The plan is to reduce these limit values from the current figure of 4 mg/litre to 10 μg/litre for lead, and from 0.3 mg/litre to 5 μg/litre for cadmium. DG SANCO 04/12/15 Final Opinion on new conclusions on future trends of cadmium accumulation in EU arable soils. Public Health (04-12-2015) Final Opinion on new conclusions on future trends of cadmium accumulation in EU arable soils The European Commission and its non-food Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks (SCHER) have published the final Opinion giving new conclusions on future trends of cadmium accumulation in EU arable soils.

DG SANCO 04/12/15 Final Opinion on new conclusions on future trends of cadmium accumulation in EU arable soils

As the last Opinion1 on this topic was adopted in 2002, the Commission asked the SCHER to look at new scientific information and assess whether it would warrant an update of 2002 Opinion. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-012364-15 La Commission autorise-t-elle le cadmium? The British journal of nutrition 06/2014; Higher antioxidant and lower cadmium concentrations and lower incidence of pesticide residues in organically grown crops: a systematic literature review and meta-analyses. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-008433-15 Neurotoxic effects of cadmium exposure on children in Huelva. A study carried out by the Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), analysing the hair and urine of 261 pupils from 13 randomly‐selected schools in the Spanish province of Huelva (in seven different towns, some located close to the suspected source of pollution in the area surrounding the industrial estates of Punta del Sebo and Tartessos), has found that cadmium exposure is associated with cognitive impairment in children.

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-008433-15 Neurotoxic effects of cadmium exposure on children in Huelva

Researchers from the University of Huelva have calculated that, in this part of Huelva, this heavy metal is present at levels 100 times higher than average. In order to look into the matter more thoroughly, the Spanish Society of Epidemiology has proposed to carry out a biomonitoring study on Huelva residents. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-007430-15 Dangerosité du cadmium. La directive 2011/65/UE relève le seuil de dangerosité du cadmium en fixant son taux par poids de matière homogène à 0,01 %, soit dix fois moins que les cinq autres substances évaluées.

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-007430-15 Dangerosité du cadmium

Pourtant, l'acte délégué de la Commission européenne du 30 janvier 2015 prévoit son autorisation dans la technologie des points quantiques jusqu'en juin 2018. Compte tenu de la haute toxicité du cadmium, cette mesure relève d'une grande irresponsabilité face au devoir de l'Union de préserver la santé humaine et l'environnement. D'ores et déjà, des alternatives existent et apparaissent comme bien moins risquées. Elles résultent de longues recherches menées par des entreprises, lesquelles pourraient se voir sanctionnées pour avoir suivi une logique écologique et plus respectueuse de la santé des consommateurs. 1. 2. VKM_NO 15/06/15 Risk assessment of dietary cadmium exposure in the Norwegian population. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) has at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority conducted a risk assessment dietary cadmium exposure in the Norwegian population.

VKM_NO 15/06/15 Risk assessment of dietary cadmium exposure in the Norwegian population

The Norwegian Food Safety Authority intends to use the risk assessment as a basis for the Norwegian contribution to the ongoing legislative work in the EU and to consider the necessity to adjust the existing national dietary advices or to issue new ones. VKM concludes that it can be expected that cadmium exposure among adults in Norway is within the range previously identified by EFSA, and close to the exposure estimated for Sweden. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 07/2014 PBPK and population modelling to interpret urine cadmium concentrations of the French population. NIFES 08/06/08 Cadmium and lead in bivalves – importance for food safety. The National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES) has analysed the content of cadmium and lead in scallops and horse mussels harvested in Norwegian waters. The results show levels above EU’s maximum limits when analysing the digestive gland of the scallop and the kidney of the horse mussel.

Cadmium in the digestive gland from scallops Shell feed by filtering seawater. During this process they may take up particles which contain contaminants. NIFES analysis indicates that scallops contain little lead. However, analysis showed that the cadmium content (3.7 - 8.4 mg/kg) exceeded EU’s maximum limits if the entire shell content was measured, but that most of this was found in the digestive gland. IFREMER - 1992 - Monitoring of pollutant biochemical effects on marine organisms of the French coasts.

Cadmium dans l'Aveyron

Environmental Sciences Europe 2011, 23:19 Mapping atmospheric depositions of cadmium and lead in Germany based on EMEP depositio.

Environmental Sciences Europe 2011, 23:19 Mapping atmospheric depositions of cadmium and lead in Germany based on EMEP deposition data and the European Moss Survey 2005 – guatemalt

DG SANCO 03/02/11 food safety - Food Contaminants - Heavy MetalsEFSA statement on tolerable weekly intake for cadmium - adopted. AESAN 30/11/11 Report of the Scientific Committee of the Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition (AESAN) in relation to the. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question: E-005799/2011 L'interdiction du cadmium et son impact sur les PME. EFSA Journal 2012;10(1):2551 Cadmium dietary exposure in the European population. ANSES 08/12/11 AVIS de l’Anses relatif à la révision des teneurs maximales en cadmium des denrées alimentaires destinés à l’homm. LUND UNVIERSITY - AOUT 2016 - Cadmium and mercury exposure over time in children in southern Sweden (1986 – 2013)