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In Egyptian mythology , Ptah ( pron.: / p ə ˈ t ɑː / ; [ 1 ] Egyptian : ptḥ , probably vocalized as Pitaḥ in ancient Egyptian [ 2 ] ) is the demiurge of Memphis, god of craftsmen and architects. In the triad of Memphis , he is the husband of Sekhmet and the father of Nefertum . He was also regarded as the father of the sage Imhotep .
Sopdu (also rendered Septu or Sopedu ) was a god of the sky and of eastern border regions in ancient Egyptian religion . [ 1 ] As a sky god, Sopdu was connected with the god Sah, the personification of the constellation Orion , and the goddess Sopdet , representing the star Sirius . According to the Pyramid Texts , Horus-Sopdu, a combination of Sopdu and the greater sky god Horus , is the offspring of Osiris -Sah and Isis -Sopdet. [ 1 ] Sopdu
In Egyptian mythology , Sekhmet ( pron.: / ˈ s ɛ k ˌ m ɛ t / ) [ 1 ] or Sachmis ( pron.: / ˈ s æ k m ɨ s / ; also spelled Sakhmet, Sekhet, or Sakhet, among other spellings) was originally the warrior goddess as well as goddess of healing for Upper Egypt . She is depicted as a lioness , the fiercest hunter known to the Egyptians. It was said that her breath created the desert.
Ra ( pron.: / r ɑː / ) [ 1 ] or Re ( pron.: / r eɪ / or pron.: / r eɪ / ; Egyptian : Rꜥ ) was the ancient Egyptian solar deity . By the Fifth Dynasty (2494 to 2345 BC) he had become a major god in ancient Egyptian religion , identified primarily with the midday sun. The meaning of the name is uncertain, but it is thought that if not a word for 'sun' it may be a variant of or linked to words meaning 'creative power' and 'creator'. [ 2 ] The major cult centre of Ra was Heliopolis (called Iunu , "Place of Pillars", in Egyptian), [ 3 ] where he was identified with the local sun-god Atum . Through Atum, or as Atum-Ra he was also seen as the first being and the originator of the Ennead , consisting of Shu and Tefnut , Geb and Nut , Osiris , Set , Isis and Nephthys . In later Egyptian dynastic times, Ra was merged with the god Horus , as Re-Horakhty ("Ra, who is Horus of the Two Horizons").
Nefertem Nefertem ( pron.: / ˈ n ɛ f ər ˌ t ɛ m / ; possibly "beautiful one who closes" or "one who does not close"; also spelled Nefertum or Nefer-temu) was, in Egyptian mythology , originally a lotus flower at the creation of the world, who had arisen from the primal waters. [ 1 ] Nefertem represented both the first sunlight and the delightful smell of the Egyptian blue lotus flower, having arisen from the primal waters within an Egyptian blue water-lily, Nymphaea caerulea . Some of the titles of Nefertem were "He Who is Beautiful" and "Water-Lily of the Sun", and a version of the Book of the Dead says, "Rise like Nefertem from the blue water lily, to the nostrils of Ra (the creator and sungod), and come forth upon the horizon each day." Nefertem the child comes from his earth father Nun 's black primordial waters, and his sky mother is Nut .
Khepri (also spelled Khepera , Kheper , Khepra , Chepri ) is a god in ancient Egyptian religion . Khepri was connected with the scarab beetle ( kheprer ), because the scarab rolls balls of dung across the ground, an act that the Egyptians saw as a symbol of the forces that move the sun across the sky. Khepri was thus a solar deity . Young dung beetles, having been laid as eggs within the dung ball, emerge from it fully formed. Therefore, Khepri also represented creation and rebirth, and he was specifically connected with the rising sun and the mythical creation of the world . The Egyptian connected his name with the Egyptian language verb kheper , meaning "develop" or "come into being". [ 1 ]
Alternative use: the Aten asteroids , named after 2062 Aten Aten Aten (also Aton , Egyptian jtn ) is the disk of the sun in ancient Egyptian mythology , and originally an aspect of Ra . The deified Aten is the focus of the monolatristic , henotheistic , or monotheistic religion of Atenism established by Amenhotep IV, who later took the name Akhenaten in worship and recognition of Aten.
Atum /ɑ-tum/ , sometimes rendered as Atem or Tem , is an important deity in Egyptian mythology . [ edit ] Name Atum's name is thought to be derived from the word tem which means to complete or finish. Thus he has been interpreted as being the 'complete one' and also the finisher of the world, which he returns to watery chaos at the end of the creative cycle. As creator he was seen as the underlying substance of the world, the deities and all things being made of his flesh or alternatively being his ka . [ 2 ] [ edit ] Origins
Amun (also Amon, Amen , Greek Ἄμμων Ammon , Ἅμμων Hammon ) was a local deity of Thebes . He was attested since the Old Kingdom together with his spouse Amaunet . With the 11th dynasty (c. 21st century BC), he rose to the position of patron deity of Thebes by replacing Monthu . [ 1 ] After the rebellion of Thebes against the Hyksos and with the rule of Ahmose I , Amun acquired national importance , expressed in his fusion with the Sun god , Ra , as Amun-Ra . Amun-Ra retained chief importance in the Egyptian pantheon throughout the New Kingdom (with the exception of the " Atenist heresy " under Akhenaten ).
Horus is one of the oldest and most significant deities in ancient Egyptian religion , who was worshipped from at least the late Predynastic period through to Greco-Roman times. Different forms of Horus are recorded in history, and these are treated as distinct gods by Egypt specialists. [ 1 ] These various forms may possibly be different perceptions of the same multi-layered deity in which certain attributes or syncretic relationships are emphasized, not necessarily in opposition but complementary to one another, consistent with how the Ancient Egyptians viewed the multiple facets of reality. [ 2 ] He was most often depicted as a falcon, most likely a lanner or peregrine , or as a man with a falcon head. [ 3 ]
Photograph of an alabaster cosmetic jar topped with a lioness, representing Bast, a burial artifact from the tomb of Tutankhamun circa 1323 BC - Cairo Museum Bastet is the name commonly used by scholars today to refer to a feline goddess of ancient Egyptian religion who was worshipped at least since the Second Dynasty . Her name is also spelled Bast , Baast , Ubasti and Baset . [ 1 ] [ edit ] Name Bastet, the form of the name which is most commonly adopted by Egyptologists today, is a modern convention offering one possible reconstruction.
Nun , the embodiment of the primordial waters, lifts the barque of the sun god Ra into the sky at the moment of creation. Egyptian mythology is the collection of myths from ancient Egypt , which describe the actions of the Egyptian gods as a means of understanding the world. The beliefs that these myths express are an important part of ancient Egyptian religion . Myths appear frequently in Egyptian writings and art , particularly in short stories and in religious material such as hymns, ritual texts, funerary texts , and temple decoration. These sources rarely contain a complete account of a myth and often describe only brief fragments. Inspired by the cycles of nature, the Egyptians saw time in the present as a series of recurring patterns, whereas the earliest periods of time were linear.