Neolithic Lower Egypt. Faiyum A culture. Merimde culture. Merimde culture. El-Omari culture. Maadi culture. Neolithic Upper Egypt. Tasian culture. The Tasian culture is possibly the oldest-known Predynastic culture in Upper Egypt around 4500 BC. The culture group is named for the burials found at Deir Tasa, a site on the east bank of the Nile between Asyut and Akhmim.
The Tasian culture group is notable for producing the earliest blacktop-ware, a type of red and brown pottery, which has been painted black on its top and interior. This pottery is vital to the dating of predynastic Egypt. Because all dates for the Predynastic period are tenuous at best, WMF Petrie developed a system called Sequence Dating by which the relative date, if not the absolute date, of any given Predynastic site can be ascertained by examining the handles on pottery. As the Predynastic period progressed, the handles on pottery evolved from functional to ornamental, and the degree to which any given archaeological site has functional or ornamental pottery can be used to determine the relative date of the site. External links Tasian culture. Badari culture. Ancient Badari figure of a woman with incised features (c. 4000 BC), carved out of hippopotamus ivory, held at the British Museum.
This type of figure is found in burials of both Badarian men and women, the earliest identifiable culture in Predynastic Egypt. The Badarian culture provides the earliest direct evidence of agriculture in Upper Egypt during the Predynastic Era. It flourished between 4400 and 4000 BCE, and might have already emerged by 5000 BCE. It was first identified in El-Badari, Asyut. About forty settlements and six hundred graves have been located. Badarian culture.
Naqada culture. Coordinates: 25°57′00″N 32°44′00″E / 25.95000°N 32.73333°E / 25.95000; 32.73333 The Naqada culture is an archaeological culture of Chalcolithic Predynastic Egypt (ca. 4400–3000 BC), named for the town of Naqada, Qena Governorate.
Its final phase, Naqada III is coterminous with the so-called Protodynastic Period of Ancient Egypt (Early Bronze Age, 3200–3000 BC). Chronology William Flinders Petrie The Naqada period was first divided by the British Egyptologist William Flinders Petrie, who explored the site in 1894, into three sub-periods: Naqada I: Amratian (after the cemetery near El-Amrah)Naqada II: Gerzean (after the cemetery near Gerzeh)Naqada III: Semainean (after the cemetery near Es-Semaina) Werner Kaiser Naqada I a-b-c (about 4400–3500 BC) Naqada II a-b-c (about 3500–3200 BC) this culture represented throughout Egyptfirst marl pottery, and metalworkingNaqada III a-b-c (about 3200–3000 BC) more elaborate grave goodscylindrical jarswriting.
Amratian culture. The Amratian Culture was a cultural period in the history of predynastic Upper Egypt, which lasted approximately from 4000 to 3500 BC. It is named after the site of El-Amra, about 120 km (75 mi) south of Badari, Upper Egypt.
El-Amra was the first site where this culture group was found without being mingled with the later Gerzean culture group. However, this period is better attested at the Naqada site, thus it also is referred to as the Naqada I culture. Black-topped ware continued to be produced, but white cross-line ware, a type of pottery which has been decorated with close parallel white lines being crossed by another set of close parallel white lines, begins to be produced during this time. The Amratian period falls between S.D. 30 and 39 in Petrie's Sequence Dating system. Trade between Upper and Lower Egypt is attested at this time, as new excavated objects attest. See also References Jump up ^ Shaw, Ian, ed. (2000). Amratian culture. Gerzeh culture. Gerzeh, also Girza or Jirzah, was a predynastic Egyptian cemetery located along the west bank of the Nile and today named after al-Girza, the nearby present day town in Egypt. Gerzeh is situated only several miles due east of the lake of the Al Fayyum.
Gerzean culture. Naqada III. Naqada III is the last phase of the Naqada culture of ancient Egyptian prehistory, dating approximately from 3200 to 3000 BC.
It is the period during which the process of state formation, which had begun to take place in Naqada II, became highly visible, with named kings heading powerful polities. Naqada III is often referred to as Dynasty 0 or Protodynastic Period to reflect the presence of kings at the head of influential states, although, in fact, the kings involved would not have been a part of a dynasty. They would more probably have been completely unrelated and very possibly in competition with each other. Kings' names are inscribed in the form of serekhs on a variety of surfaces including pottery and tombs. The Protodynastic Period in ancient Egypt was characterised by an ongoing process of political unification, culminating in the formation of a single state to begin the Early Dynastic Period. State formation began during this era and perhaps even earlier. Proto-Dynastic period.