Le cognitivisme : schéma intégrateur. Welcome to Cogprints - Cogprints. Health | Internet use 'good for the brain' For middle-aged and older people at least, using the internet helps boost brain power, research suggests. A University of California Los Angeles team found searching the web stimulated centres in the brain that controlled decision-making and complex reasoning. The researchers say this might even help to counteract the age-related physiological changes that cause the brain to slow down. The study features in the American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. As the brain ages, a number of changes occur, including shrinkage and reductions in cell activity, which can affect performance.
It has long been thought that activities which keep the brain active, such as crossword puzzles, may help minimise that impact - and the latest study suggests that surfing the web can be added to the list. Lead researcher Professor Gary Small said: "The study results are encouraging, that emerging computerised technologies may have physiological effects and potential benefits for middle-aged and older adults.
Musicians spot mistakes more quickly and more accurately than non-musicians - Science - News. The study, led by Dr Ines Jentzsch for the University of St Andrews, tested the cognitive abilities of musicians and non-musicians, with the research concluding that learning an instrument could “slow or even prevent” the mental decline associated with aging. The research, published in the journal Neuropsychologia, draws particular attention to the skills learnt in musical performance. When playing pieces to an audience or to themselves musicians must demonstrate heightened awareness of their actions: continually monitoring their playing through auditory feedback and rapidly adjusting their movements to anticipate possible mistakes.
The psychological and mental benefits of learning to play an instrument have been shown in previous studies, with research highlighting musicians’ improved reaction times and their increased capacity to “inhibit task irrelevant information” (aka, to stay focused). Xinwei/classes/readings/Maturana/autopoesis_and_cognition.pdf. Literature, Cognition & the Brain. Cognitive Science Celebrities. Cognitive/ Learning Styles. Cognitive styles and learning styles refer to the preferred way an individual processes information or the different ways in which children and adults think and learn. Each of us develops a preferred and consistent set of behaviors or approaches to learning. Unlike theories of individual differences in abilities (e.g., Gardner), which describe peak performance, learning styles describe a person’s typical mode of thinking, remembering or problem solving.
Furthermore, styles are usually considered to be bipolar dimensions, whereas abilities are unipolar (i.e., ranging from zero to a maximum value). Having more of an ability is usually considered beneficial, while having a particular cognitive style simply denotes a tendency to behave in a certain manner. To further our understanding of the learning process, Litzinger and Osif (1993) broke it down into several processes: Cognition – How one acquires knowledge. Conceptualization – How one processes information. Scanning. ICIC Home | The International Institute of Cognitive Informatics and Cognitive Computing. The International Institute of Cognitive Informatics and Cognitive Computing (ICIC) Mission of ICIC The International Institute of Cognitive Informatics and Cognitive Computing (ICIC) is an international not-for-profit association of researchers and practitioners in a wide range of contemporary disciplines such as cognitive informatics, abstract intelligence, cognitive computing, denotational mathematics, cognitive computers, computational intelligence, cognitive systems, cognitive robots, cognitive Internet, cognitive linguistics, cognitive learning engines, cognitive inference engines, brain informatics, neuroinformatics and software science.
ICIC focuses not only on basic theories and denotational mathematics underpinning the aforementioned scientific and engineering disciplines, but also on their applications in industries, health care, societies and humanities. Key Member Organizations Technical Sponsors - The IEEE Computer Society Industrial Sponsors. Kingston Distributed Cognition Group. Cognitive Domain. 2-IJCINI-4101-CI&CC.pdf. CognitiveInformaticsCognitiveSynergyPaper_v1 - CognitiveSynergy.pdf. Socially distributed cognition. Distributed cognition is a psychological theory that knowledge lies not only within the individual, but also in the individual's social and physical environment. This theory was developed in the mid-1980s by Edwin Hutchins.
Using insights from sociology, cognitive science, and the psychology of Vygotsky (cf. cultural-historical psychology) it emphasizes the social aspects of cognition. It is a framework for studying cognition rather than a type of cognition. This framework involves the coordination between individuals, artifacts and the environment. Embodiment of information that is embedded in representations of interactionCoordination of enaction among embodied agentsEcological contributions to a cognitive ecosystem Distributed cognition is a branch of cognitive science that proposes that human knowledge and cognition are not confined to the individual. This abstraction can be categorized into three distinct types of processes: Early research Daniel L. Applications Wiki : CognitiveSynergy. Cognitive Synergy - "The state wherein two or more cognitions achieve a level of cooperation which results in an intellectual output greater than the sum of their individual contributions.
" Having subjective cognitions to juxtapose is an existential prerequisite of having cognitive synergy. This awareness is a fundamental reason to embrace and celebrate dynamic perspectives. Though approaches must be dynamic, the intention of participating cognitions must be unified. Terence McKenna spoke of a unified worldview on a global scale, encompassing everybody from "Cambridge, to the natives of the highlands of New Guinea. " It is important to recognize the potential of all angles and views, as that allows for the most data from which to synthesize insights. Intellectual teamwork is a behavior commonly exhibited in primates. This wiki is a prime example, as it allows us to mutually expand upon and complement each others conceptualizations, producing greater insight. A new era of cognitive computing. IBM says it is possible to build a new computing architecture that is more human-like and biologically inspired than traditional systems.
After a year of “medical school”, IBM’s intelligent supercomputer, Watson, has produced its first commercially available applications for doctors and health insurance companies. Now that Watson is proving itself in the medical field, the door is being flung open for other industries and a new era of cognitive computing. According to IBM, Watson’s performance has improved by 240% since it rose to prominence by beating the reigning human champions at the popular US quiz show, Jeopardy, two years ago. The supercomputer is named after IBM co-founder Thomas Watson, and is a project of IBM’s research labs. Speaking at an open lecture at Wits University recently, IBM’s senior VP and director of IBM Research, Dr John Kelly, said the original intention with Watson was to create a system that would be “as good as humans” at answering any question in any domain.
Vers un capitalisme cognitif ? > Fonda. Vous trouverez ci-dessous une synthèse des échanges du petit déjeuner organisé par la Fonda et la Maison de l’Europe de Paris avec le soutien de la Caisse des Dépôts, inititulé Vers un capitalisme cognitif ? , qui s’est déroulée le 19 novembre 2008 autour de Yann-Moulier Boutang et Roger Sue. La présente synthèse rédigée par Henry Noguès est publiée sous notre seule responsabilité et constitue une interprétation des propos tenus lors de ces rencontres. Roger Sue commence par présenter Yann Moulier-Boutang en indiquant que sa réflexion anti-orthodoxe (ni néoclassique ni conventionaliste) le situe à mi-chemin entre économie et sociologie.
Son intuition est que le capitalisme aborde une nouvelle phase après celles du capitalisme mercantiliste et du capitalisme industriel, le capitalisme cognitif. L’originalité de cette pensée n’est pas tellement de dire que la connaissance devient centrale dans la production mais plutôt d’en tirer toutes les conséquences. La Pollinisation ? Genomics|Training|Competencies: educational objectives - Text Description. Cognition. Cognition is a faculty for the processing of information, applying knowledge, and changing preferences. Cognition, or cognitive processes, can be natural or artificial, conscious or unconscious. These processes are analyzed from different perspectives within different contexts, notably in the fields of linguistics, anesthesia, neuroscience, psychiatry, psychology, philosophy, anthropology, systemics, and computer science.[page needed] Within psychology or philosophy, the concept of cognition is closely related to abstract concepts such as mind, intelligence.
It encompasses the mental functions, mental processes (thoughts), and states of intelligent entities (humans, collaborative groups, human organizations, highly autonomous machines, and artificial intelligences). Etymology Origins Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) heavily emphasized the notion of what he called introspection; examining the inner feelings of an individual. Psychology Social process Serial position. Metacognition. Metacognition is defined as "cognition about cognition", or "knowing about knowing". It comes from the root word "meta", meaning beyond. It can take many forms; it includes knowledge about when and how to use particular strategies for learning or for problem solving. There are generally two components of metacognition: knowledge about cognition, and regulation of cognition. Metamemory, defined as knowing about memory and mnemonic strategies, is an especially important form of metacognition. Differences in metacognitive processing across cultures have not been widely studied, but could provide better outcomes in cross-cultural learning between teachers and students. Some evolutionary psychologists hypothesize that metacognition is used as a survival tool, which would make metacognition the same across cultures. Writings on metacognition can be traced back at least as far as De Anima and the Parva Naturalia of the Greek philosopher Aristotle. Definitions 
Cognition in the Wild. By Edwin Hutchins, Published by MIT Press, 1995. Order a copy from MIT Press. The seed from which this book grew was planted in November 1980, when I spent most of a day on the navigation bridge of a U.S. Navy ship as it worked its way in from the open North Pacific, through the Straits of Juan de Fuca, and down Puget Sound to Seattle. I was aboard the ship to study what the operators of its steam propulsion plant knew and how they went about knowing it. I had spent most of the preceding week down in the bowels of the ship, observing engineering operations and talking to the boiler technicians and machinist's mates who inhabited that hot, wet, noisy tangle of boilers, pumps, and pipes called the engineering spaces.
I resolved, therefore, to take my last few hours aboard this ship on the navigation bridge, where I could see out the windows or even go out on the bridge wing to get a breath of cold fresh air. Distr.CognitionFramework-final - Distr.CognitionFramework.pdf. MetaCogs. Metacognition. This article or section is incomplete and its contents need further attention.
Some sections may be missing, some information may be wrong, spelling and grammar may have to be improved etc. Use your judgment! 1 Definition Metacognition can be considered a synonym for reflection in applied learning theory. However, metacognition is a very complex phenomenon. Both metacognition and reflection are considered in educational psychology texts to be concerned with the process of monitoring, regulating and controlling an individuals thinking about their thinking. . “ "Metacognition" is often simply defined as "thinking about thinking. " 2.1 Flavell's typology According to Flavell (1979, 1987) cited by Livingston (1977), metacognition consists of both metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive experiences or regulation. (1) Metacognitive knowledge according to Livingston (1977): (2) Metacognitive regulation according to Livingston (1977): 2.2 Types of strategies 2.3 Knowledge types According to NCREL: ...
Cognitive Style as Environmentally Sensitive Individual Differences in Cognition. A Modern Synthesis and Applications in Education, Business, and Management Maria Kozhevnikov, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, 149 Thirteenth St., Charlestown, MA 02129 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract The key aims of this article are to relate the construct of cognitive style to current theories in cognitive psychology and neuroscience and to outline a framework that integrates the findings on individual differences in cognition across different disciplines.
First, we characterize cognitive style as patterns of adaptation to the external world that develop on the basis of innate predispositions, the interactions among which are shaped by changing environmental demands. Second, we show that research on cognitive style in psychology and cross-cultural neuroscience, on learning styles in education, and on decision-making styles in business and management all address the same phenomena. Introduction G. Théorie du cerveau triunique. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Introduit par Paul Mac Lean en 1969, cette vision de l'organisation neuroanatomique est un outil théorique, aujourd'hui controversé, permettant de modéliser l'architecture fonctionnelle du cerveau et l'organisation générale de ses principales aires en relative interdépendance. Phylogénie du cerveau triunique[modifier | modifier le code] Le cerveau reptilien[modifier | modifier le code] Le cerveau reptilien serait donc notre premier cerveau.
C'est celui qui régit le fonctionnement des oiseaux, des amphibiens, des poissons et des reptiles. Au niveau purement anatomique, il correspond, chez l'être humain, au tronc cérébral. Il est responsable des comportements primitifs assurant nos besoins fondamentaux. Ce cerveau primitif de reptile entraîne des comportements stéréotypés, pré-programmés. [réf. nécessaire] Critique du concept[modifier | modifier le code] Notes et références[modifier | modifier le code] Concept parents[modifier | modifier le code] Intelligence Collective et cerveau triunique. Intelligence Collective et cerveau triunique De l’Intelligence Collective à l’Intelligence Collaborative Souvent le parallèle est fait entre l’Intelligence Collective (IC) et le fonctionnement du cerveau. L’Intelligence Collective est omniprésente dans le vivant L’intelligence collective s’observe dans la nature principalement chez les insectes, mais depuis les récents travaux des biologistes (Jean-Marie Pelt) et en particulier des biomiméticiens (Janine Benyus), il existe une évidente collaboration entre les espèces végétales et animales.
La question qui se pose alors est la suivante : quelle partie de nous-même participe-t-elle à cette intelligence collective ? Et pourquoi d’ailleurs se poser la question ? Afin de clarifier l’intention qui préside à nos actes, ce qui nous conduit aujourd’hui à prendre conscience de l’Intelligence Collective et à chercher à l’utiliser et à en diffuser les rouages.
Le lien entre IC et le fonctionnement du cerveau Pour une référence plus détaillée voir : Evolution of evolvability. The Triune Brain. Cognitive psychology. Thinking Traps. La Théorie Sensorielle|Une archéologie de la perception sensorielle. How Homo became Sapiens – on the Evolution of Thinking. List of thought processes. Cognitive Assessment System. Cognition Factor. Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience. Genes to Cognition Online.