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Poster for the 1962 hypno-assassination thriller, The Manchurian Candidate. The 1962 film The Manchurian Candidate –based on Richard Condon’s 1959 novel– portrays an American soldier who is hypnotized by Communists and trained to assassinate American officials on command. This 22 January 1954 CIA memo shows that the Agency also pondered using hypnotized assassination. The report’s central question was, “Can an individual of [redacted] descent be made to perform an act of attempted assassination involuntarily under the influence of ARTICHOKE?” According to a subsequent CIA report , “ARTICHOKE is the Agency cryptonym for the study and/or use of ‘special’ interrogation methods that have been known to include the use of drugs and chemicals, hypnosis, and ‘total isolation,’ a form of psychological harassment.” Later, the document stipulated that this assassination attempt would be “against a prominent [redacted] politician or if necessary, against an American official.”
In a recent article H. P. Albarelli, author of A Terrible Mistake: The Murder of Frank Olson and the CIA’s Secret Cold War Experiments , and Jeffrey Kaye have reminded us of the sordid past of CIA behavioral science research in the CIA’s Project Artichoke. They make a case that the CIA deliberately exposed their much better known MKULTRA program as a way of distracting attention from the much more pernicious, and operational, Project Artichoke: Operation Dormouse Contemporary torture’s earliest, deepest and most influential roots are found in the CIA’s Artichoke Project.
Declassified pages of ARTICHOKE-MKULTRA Project ARTICHOKE (also referred to as Operation ARTICHOKE ) was a CIA project that researched interrogation methods and arose from Project BLUEBIRD on August 20, 1951, run by the CIA's Office of Scientific Intelligence . [ 1 ] A memorandum by Richard Helms to CIA director Allen Welsh Dulles indicated Artichoke became Project MKULTRA on April 13, 1953. [ 2 ] [ not in citation given ] The project studied hypnosis , forced morphine addiction (and subsequent forced withdrawal), and the use of other chemicals, among other methods, to produce amnesia and other vulnerable states in subjects. ARTICHOKE was an offensive program of mind control that gathered information together with the intelligence divisions of the Army , Navy , Air Force , and FBI .
Declassified MKUltra documents Project MKUltra was the code name of a U.S. government covert research operation experimenting in the behavioral engineering of humans (mind control) through the CIA's Scientific Intelligence Division . The program began in the early 1950s, was officially sanctioned in 1953, was reduced in scope in 1964, further curtailed in 1967 and "officially halted" in 1973. [ 1 ] The program engaged in many illegal activities; [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] in particular it used unwitting U.S. and Canadian citizens as its test subjects, which led to controversy regarding its legitimacy. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8 ] [ 9 ] MKUltra involved the use of many methodologies to manipulate people's individual mental states and alter brain functions, including the surreptitious administration of drugs (especially LSD ) and other chemicals, hypnosis , sensory deprivation , isolation, verbal and sexual abuse , as well as various forms of torture . [ 10 ]
Project Bluebird was the CIA 's first behavior modification program. Initiated in 1949, it was overtaken by Project Artichoke in 1950 and morphed into the massive Project MKULTRA in 1953. The primary goal of these CIA projects was to develop and refine control over the mind and human behavior for the purpose of espionage, counter-espionage, and the clandestine manipulation of global politics .
BLUEBIRD Deliberate Creation of Multiple Personality by Psychiatrists By Colin A. Ross MD A 10-Page Summary In this summary of Bluebird , Dr. Ross describes unethical experiments conducted by psychiatrists to create amnesia, new identities, hypnotic access codes, and new memories in the minds of experimental subjects.
by Colin A. Ross Psychiatrist, Author, The CIA Doctors , Military Mind Control and Project Bluebird September 3, 2009 My book, The CIA Doctors, [i] is based on 15,000 pages of documents I received from the CIA through the Freedom of Information Act and dozens of papers published in medical journals. These papers report the results of research funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Department of the Army, the Office of Naval Research and the CIA. From 1950 to 1972, the CIA funded TOP SECRET research at many leading universities including Harvard, Yale, Cornell, Johns Hopkins and Stanford. There was a series of CIA mind control programs including BLUEBIRD, ARTICHOKE, MKULTRA, MKSEARCH and MKNAOMI.