Coalition government. Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia. Profile The ARS was formed in 2007 after roughly 400 delegates, including former Islamic Courts Union Shura chairman Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys, ICU Executive chairman Sharif Sheikh Ahmad, former TFG Speaker of Parliament Sharif Hassan Sheikh Aden, and the former TFG Deputy Prime Minister Hussein Mohamed Farrah, approved a constitution and central committee.
It aimed to remove the Ethiopian-backed government through either negotiation or force. The Alliance had a 191-member Central Committee chaired by Sharif Hassan Sheikh Aden, and a 10 member Executive Committee chaired by Sharif Sheikh Ahmad. Former ICU leader Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys explicitly stated he did not hold any formal position in the Alliance. Islamists held 45% of the seats, ex-MPs 25%, and the rest of the organization's seats were held by representatives of the diaspora and civil society. War in Somalia (2009–present) Situation of the war in Somalia back in mid-July 2009.
In 2011, a coordinated military operation between the Somali military and multinational forces began. The mission was officially led by the Somali army, with analysts expecting the additional AU troop reinforcements to help the Somali authorities gradually expand their territorial control. 2009 timeline of the War in Somalia.
Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a. Overview Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a became prominent in 2008, when it took up arms against al-Shabaab after the radical group began destroying the tombs of the country's Sufi saints.  The group opposes laws banning music, khat; and hardline capital punishment or limb amputations advocated by extremist interpretations of Islam.
They oppose the tearing down of religious shrines and stoning. ASWJ won large victories in central Somalia and controlled the majority of southern Mudug, Gedo and Galgaduud, as well as parts of Hiran, Middle Shebelle, and Bakool. On March 15, 2010, the Somali transitional government and Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a signed an agreement giving the militia control of five ministries, in addition to diplomatic posts and senior positions within the national security apparatus. In exchange, the militia would lend military support against al-Shabab. Hizbul Islam. The group has been compared to the Taliban of Afghanistan and Pakistan. History Start Hizbul Islam was formed in January 2009 by a merger of four groups, with Ali Yassin Mohamed among its founders. On 7 February 2009, Hizbul announced that it would continue fighting the new government led by President Sharif Sheik Ahmed and the African Union forces in Mogadishu.
Omar Iman, the group's first chairman, said, "the so-called government led by Sharif Sheik Ahmed is not different from the one of Abdullahi Yusuf" and that they would continue the holy war (Jihad). Three weeks later, it appeared that Hizbul Islam would sign a ceasefire with the Transitional Federal Government. However, by 1 March it was clear that no ceasefire would be given, despite President Sharif Ahmed having agreed to proposals for a truce and having offered to accept the implementation of sharia law. Internal struggle, 2009 The groups first internal power struggle lasted from March to May 2009.
Al-Shabaab (militant group) Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen (HSM) (Arabic: حركة الشباب المجاهدين; Ḥarakat ash-Shabāb al-Mujāhidīn, Somali: Xarakada Mujaahidiinta Alshabaab, "Mujahideen Youth Movement" or "Movement of Striving Youth"), more commonly known as al-Shabaab (Arabic: الشباب), meaning "The Youth", or "The Youngsters", is a jihadist group based in Somalia.
In 2012, it joined the militant Islamist organization al-Qaeda as a cell. As of 2013, the group has retreated from the major cities, but imposes strict forms of Sharia law in some rural regions. Al-Shabaab's troop strength as of 2013 was estimated at 4,000 to 6,000 militants. In February 2012, the group's leaders quarreled with Al-Qaeda over the union, and quickly lost ground. Al-Shabaab has also been accused of being responsible for the deaths of tens of thousands of elephants every year for their ivory, and for killing rangers hired to protect them. Other leaders: