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Rare first edition of ‘The Map that Changed the World’ unearthed #map #science #geology | Maps | Pinterest. ¿Cómo afecta el deshielo de la Antártida a la gravedad de la Tierra? El satélite Grace de la NASA y el de la Agencia Espacial Europea, el GOCE, han proporcionado durante años alarmantes datos sobre ambos procesos. Y entre 2009 y 2012 un colectivo de científicos del Instituto Alemán de Investigación Geodésica, la Universidad Técnica de Múnich (Alemania), la Universidad Tecnológica de Delft (Países Bajos) y el Laboratorio de Propulsión a Chorro (Estados Unidos) estableció una correlación inmediata entre ellos.

Para monitorear los efectos del cambio climático, la capa de hielo de la Antártida fue dividida convencionalmente en cuencas hidrográficas de distinto tamaño. A partir de esta matriz, las mediciones del Grace pudieron ser procesadas de manera comparativa para averiguar qué cambios sufren los glaciares en cada cuenca y cómo se produce la descarga de hielo a los océanos. En cifras absolutas la variación de la gravedad no es muy grande, asegura la revista 'Slate'. Este efecto se debe a la tensión del subsuelo. The Most Detailed Map of the Ocean Floor Ever Was Made From Space. Why Deadly Japan Volcano Erupted Without Warning. The death toll at Japan's Mount Ontake volcano climbed to 36 today (Sept. 29), with rescue crews still searching for missing people.

The eruption caught the hikers by surprise this weekend. More than 250 people were exploring shrines and resorts at the 10,062-foot-high (3,067 meters) peak, the country's second-tallest volcano. But just a month ago, in Iceland, anyone with an Internet connection knew exactly where new magma was tunneling underground before the Bardarbunga eruption began. Earthquakes, GPS and volcanic gas "sniffers" plotted out each new advance. (Magma is molten rock underground, whereas lava is molten rock flowing on the surface.) [Stunning Pictures: Japan's New Volcanic Island] Japan has a similar high-tech network for watching its volcanoes.

"If you have a monitoring system in place, it's very unlikely that deeper activity will go unnoticed," said Philipp Ruprecht, a volcanologist at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in Palisades, New York. Sudden surprise Deadly ash flow. Becky | Water scientists. Becky is a hydrogeologist who has specialised in groundwater modelling and is working in Sydney, Australia.

She was born in England but moved to the other-side of the world to further her career. The types of models that Becky works with are called “numerical groundwater models”, which are computer based simulations of real-life groundwater systems. These can be used to predict impacts to groundwater systems, such as whether changes to one system (such as coal seam gas wells removing groundwater from coal seams) might cause significant changes to the amount of groundwater that is available for a farmer at his or her groundwater well, for example. Groundwater modelling is based on a lot of maths and physics equations, but Becky uses a software program that makes it easy to input the data, so, even though she is pretty smart at maths, she doesn’t have to do a lot of number work. There are a lot of different types of data that are needed to build a groundwater model for a particular site. El Sahara se formó por la contracción del antiguo mar de Thetys hace 7 millones de años.

La desecación de ese mar, precursor del Mediterráneo, debilitó la acción del monzón africano provocando la expansión de las condiciones de aridez del desierto El desierto del Sahara no siempre fue tal y como lo conocemos hoy. Hace millones de años fue una pradera verde salpicada de pantanos y lagos. Cómo y cuándo se convirtió este Sahara verde en el desierto cálido más grande del mundo, con 9,4 millones de kilómetros cuadrados, sigue siendo objeto de discusión en la comunidad científica. Aunque en los últimos años ha habido un amplio consenso en situar su aparición hace 2 o 3 millones de años, el reciente hallazgo de depósitos de dunas de arena con 7 millones de años de antigüedad sugiere que la formación del Sahara es bastante anterior a lo que se pensaba, aunque los científicos no habían encontrado un claro mecanismo de aridez para esa época. Aparición de los primeros homínidos. El Sahara se formó por la contracción del antiguo mar de Thetys hace 7 millones de años.

Iceland Eruption, Largest for a Century, Shows No Signs of Stopping. The Bardarbunga eruptive fissure on September 1, 2014. Credit: University of Iceland/Ármann Höskuldsson The largest lava eruption for over a century is currently underway in central Iceland. Since August 31, liquid rock has been streaming from a mile-long fissure in the plains around Bardarbunga, the country’s second highest volcano. Ármann Höskuldsson, a volcanologist from the University of Iceland, says that the fissure has now spewed more lava, by area, than any eruption since the 19th century. The university’s most recent estimate puts the amount of lava at nearly eight square miles — enough to cover a quarter of the island of Manhattan. The fissure has been erupting regularly and vigorously since it opened, shooting lava fountains more than 300ft into the air; the associated lava flows stretch for up to seven miles.

Contained Risk Despite its scale, this eruption is not a particularly dangerous one. But there are signs that that could change. Warning Signs Watching the Crater. Model 3D de l'àrea volcànica de la Garrotxa - BETA PORTAL ICGC. L’evolució de la WEB està comportant noves maneres de visualitzar i interactuar amb la geoinformació. En el món geoespacial WebGL és una tecnologia que té particular interès, atès que possibilita la interacció de l’usuari amb les dades cartogràfiques vectorials en 3D, sense necessitat de plugins addicionals. (Comproveu si el vostre navegador pot mostrar WebGL en aquesta adreça: Des del betaportal de l’ICGC us presentem un model 3D de l’àrea geogràfica dels volcans de la Garrotxa, demostrador d’aquesta tecnologia, que permet la navegació de l’usuari dins l’escena (premeu la “i” de l’extrem inferior esquerra per a veure les tecles de control).

La geoinformació que hem emprat per crear aquesta escena és el model d’elevacions de Catalunya, les edificacions en 3D de la base 1:5.000 i la base de noms geogràfics de Catalunya. Tota aquesta geoinformació la podeu descarregar gratuïtament a Rating: 0.0/5 (0 votes cast) Acrocephalus |*| on Twitter: "Iceland's Latest Volcanic Eruption Has Airlines Nervous. Here's Why #infographic #geology. Iceland's Latest Volcanic Eruption Has Airlines Nervous. Here's Why. (INFOGRAPHIC) Iceland, home to one of the largest glaciers in Europe and a multitude of volcanoes, made headlines this week following news of a small eruption in the Bárðarbunga (or Bardarbunga) volcanic system. At 118 miles long and 15 miles wide, Bardarbunga is Iceland's largest volcanic system, so an eruption could have profound implications for air travel in the region, particularly if the volcano emits a large ash cloud. The land of fire and ice, it seems, is no place for jet engines.

For instance, when Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano erupted in 2010, the resulting ash plume grounded more than 100,000 flights in what the BBC reports was the largest closure of European airspace since World War II. In an email to The Huffington Post on Friday, an FAA spokesperson said there haven't been any flight diversions as a result of the current eruption. So why don't volcanoes and air travel mix? See the below infographic for more on how volcanic activity affects airplanes and air travel: New Iceland Eruptions Visible From Space. Two new lava-spouting fissures opened overnight Thursday (Sept. 4) in Iceland, and NASA's Terra satellite spied the hotspots from space. The lava erupted Sept. 5, just 1.2 miles (2 kilometers) north of Dyngjujokull glacier. Magma rose through cracks in the ground in a long depression called a rift valley. The valley appeared just a few days earlier, when the ground shifted to accommodate the fresh magma feeding the older Holuhraun eruption to the north.

The Terra satellite's MODIS instrument captured the eruption at 12:50 p.m. local time (8:50 a.m. ET) on Friday (Sept. 5). The red outline highlights unusually high surface temperatures associated with volcanic activity. Iceland's Civil Protection Agency has restricted travel near the glacier for fear of flooding. Vigorous activity still continues at the surface eruption that began Aug. 28, when lava broke through a fissure in the 200-year-old Holuhraun lava field between Bardarbunga volcano and Askja volcano.

Mount St. Helens Is Recharging: What Rising Magma Means. ANCHORAGE, Alaska — Mount St. Helens is nowhere near another eruption, but new magma is rising underground, heaving the volcano upward and outward by the length of a fingertip, researchers said here today (May 2) at the annual meeting of the Seismological Society of America. A small amount of magma started pooling 2.5 to 3 miles (4 to 5 kilometers) beneath the volcano in 2008, said lead study author Seth Moran, a seismologist with the Cascades Volcano Observatory in Washington state. The depth comes from the pattern of surface swelling, measured with GPS, and from earthquakes triggered by the molten rock pushing upward.

GPS units moved away from the center of the volcano by up to 0.5 inches (12 millimeters) between 2008 and 2013. "This doesn't mean it's getting ready to erupt," Moran told Live Science's Our Amazing Planet. The observatory tracked a similar refueling pattern beneath Mount St. Digital elevation map of Mount St. "We're like the fire department," Moran said. SGeology side effects puzzle astronauts #geology   Strange Siberian Spikes Prompt Astronauts to Phone Home. Houston, we have a question: What are these weird spiky shapes we're seeing as we fly over Siberia?

That's what astronauts were asking this June, when the sight of strange, dark-green features running along Siberia's Kulunda Steppe left them stumped, according to NASA's Earth Observatory. The curving features streak across the plain near the Ob River, and can be seen from the International Space Station (ISS) when it flies over the Northern Hemisphere's 52nd parallel, the highest latitude of its orbit. Fortunately for the ISS astronauts' burning curiosity, researchers at NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston had answers. The spikes are a side effect of the geology of the region: Folded surface rocks (shaped by tectonic forces) dip lower than the surrounding land, creating long, linear valleys filled with pine forests.

From space, the pines appear as a darker shade of green than the surrounding agricultural fields, according to the Earth Observatory. Humanity's Longest-Lasting Legacy: Miles of Holes. It's estimated that humans have altered over half of the planet's surface, and those changes are easy to see – the ice sheets are melting, forests are shrinking and species are going extinct. People have changed the planet so dramatically that some geologists think the Earth has entered a new phase in its geological timeline, named the "Anthropocene.

" But what about the marks humans are leaving deep underground? "Because it's not in our immediate living environment, it doesn't seem as significant," said Jan Zalasiewicz, a senior lecturer in palaeobiology at the University of Leicester, in the United Kingdom. But, as Zalasiewicz and two of his colleagues argue in a new study, human activity below the surface is permanently changing Earth, and a sprawling web of holes from mining and energy exploration provides more evidence the planet has entered the Anthropocene. [World's Weirdest Geological Formations] Out of sight, out of mind Permanent changes A new geological phase? The Aftershocks — Matter. Giulio Selvaggi was asleep when the shaking started. It was the night of April 5, 2009, and the head of Italy’s National Earthquake Center had worked late into the night in Rome before going home to crash.

From the motion of his bed, Selvaggi could tell the quake was big — but not close. When you’re near the epicenter of a major quake, it’s like being a kernel of corn inside a popcorn maker. When you’re farther away, the movement is slower and steadier, back and forth, as the shock waves hit you. Selvaggi hopped from the bed and checked his phone, but there were no messages. “Where is it?” “L’Aquila, 5.8,” came the answer. (It would later be classified as a 6.2.) Selvaggi’s first thought: At least it’s not a 7. Seventy miles from Rome, Giustino Parisse had already been woken twice by tremors. “Questo terremoto ci ha rotto,” said 17-year-old Domenico, restless. “I know, I know,” Parisse replied. He switched on a light to peek in on his 15-year-old daughter, Maria Paola. Long-lost continent found under the Indian Ocean. Jack Abuin/ZUMA Press/Corbis The beaches of Mauritius contain fragments of a type of rock typical of ancient continental crust — rock which could have been brought to the surface by volcanic eruptions.

The drowned remnants of an ancient microcontinent may lie scattered beneath the waters between Madagascar and India, a new study suggests. Evidence for the long-lost land comes from Mauritius, a volcanic island about 900 kilometres east of Madagascar. The oldest basalts on the island date to about 8.9 million years ago, says Bjørn Jamtveit, a geologist at the University of Oslo. Yet grain-by-grain analyses of beach sand that Jamtveit and his colleagues collected at two sites on the Mauritian coast revealed around 20 zircons — tiny crystals of zirconium silicate that are exceedingly resistant to erosion or chemical change — that were far older.

The zircons had crystallized within granites or other igneous rocks at least 660 million years ago, says Jamtveit. Methane-bubbles. Hundreds of Methane Plumes Erupting Along East Coast. Hundreds of Methane Plumes Erupting Along East Coast. Icelandic Volcano Rumbles Raises Eruption Fears. Earthquake swarms are shaking up a large ice-capped volcano in Iceland, raising worries of an eruption that could trigger flooding and send ash clouds into the atmosphere. The 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano triggered floods and ash plumes that halted air travel to Europe. (Related: "Iceland Volcano Erupts Under Ice, Triggers Floods. ") Icelandic officials report that the minor quakes have occurred since Monday near the Bárđarbunga volcano, the country's second highest mountain at 6,560 feet (2,000 meters). It lies in the remote central region of Iceland under the largest glacier, Vatnajökull.

The ice above the volcano's central caldera is about 2,300 feet (700 meters) thick. "Presently there are no signs of eruption, but it cannot be excluded that the current activity will result in an explosive subglacial eruption," says the Icelandic Meteorological Office in a statement. Swarm Physics The intrusion of magma may stall, if there is not enough pressure.

Fire and Ice. Icelandic Volcano Rumbles Raises Eruption Fears. Instagram. Earth's Most Abundant, But Hidden Mineral Finally Seen, Named. Instagram. Instagram. If The Earth Stopped Spinning, Some Really Bad Things Would Happen. Sometimes it's easy to forget that the Earth and everything on it are rotating. But it's a good thing that our planet keeps spinning, because if it suddenly stopped it would unleash a torrent of catastrophes. Just listen to what Michael Stevens has to say in this new installment of his Vsauce YouTube series. "First of all, you would gain weight," Stevens says, a reference to the fact the Earth's rotation slightly offsets the effect of gravity. "But that would be the least of your worries. " That's because you'd suddenly be facing winds as fast as those created by atomic bomb blasts and tsunamis kilometers high. Things would be especially bad near the equator, where the surface of the Earth rotates fastest. For the full explanation, check out the video above.

Scientists Get First Look Inside Mysterious Siberian Crater. Nature's strongest glue comes unstuck. Giant Hole Forms In Siberia, And Nobody Can Explain Why. Earth Had Oxygen Much Earlier Than Thought. Mud Volcano? Weird Island Appears After Pakistan Earthquake. Deep-Focus Earthquake Analogs Recorded at High Pressure and Temperature in the Laboratory. Why Earth's Inner and Outer Cores Rotate in Opposite Directions. Earth's Core Spins In Two Different Directions, Groundbreaking Research Reveals.