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Medicinal Mushrooms

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Mushroom - Powerful Immune Secret to Prevent Cold and Flu. Medicinal mushrooms. Lepista nuda Medicinal mushrooms are mushrooms used in medicine or medical research. History[edit] Ganoderma cultivation (left, Hokkaido) Cordyceps store (right, Lhasa) Mushrooms, fermentation molds, mycelia, sclerotium, and lichens, have a history of medicinal use spanning millennia. The mushroom with the longest record of medicinal use Ganoderma lucidum, is known in Chinese as líng zhī ("spirit plant"), and in Japanese as mannentake ("10,000 year mushroom"). In ancient Japan, Grifola frondosa was worth its weight in silver.[1] A Hadith states, "Truffles are manna which Allah sent to the people of Israel through Moses, and its juice is a medicine for the eyes Medical applications[edit] Antimicrobial isolates and derivatives[edit] Ling Zhi-8, an immunomodulatory protein isolated from Ganoderma lucidum Antibiotics retapamulin, tiamulin, and valnemulin are derivatives of the mushroom isolate pleuromutilin.

Mushroom enzyme inhibitors[edit] Anticancer research[edit] Antidiabetic research[edit] Lingzhi mushroom. Taxonomy and naming[edit] Names for the lingzhi fungus have a two thousand year history. The Chinese term lingzhi 灵芝 was first recorded in the Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 CE). Petter Adolf Karsten named the genus Ganoderma in 1881.[2] Botanical names[edit] There are multiple species of Lingzhi, scientifically known to be within the Ganoderma lucidum species complex and mycologists are still researching the differences among species within this complex.[4] Chinese names[edit] In the Chinese language, lingzhi compounds ling 灵 "spirit, spiritual; soul; miraculous; sacred; divine; mysterious; efficacious; effective" (cf. Since both Chinese Ling and Zhi have multiple meanings, Lingzhi has diverse English translations.

Japanese names[edit] Japanese language Reishi 霊芝 is a Sino-Japanese loan word from Lingzhi. Reishi synonyms divide between Sino-Japanese borrowings and native Japanese coinages. Korean names[edit] Korean language Yeong Ji or Yung Gee (영지,灵芝) is a word from hanja of lingzhi. Phellinus linteus. Early research has suggested that Phellinus linteus has anti-breast cancer activity.[1][2] A paper published by Harvard Medical School reported that Phellinus linteus is a promising anti-cancer agent, but that more research is required to understand the mechanisms behind its anti-cancer activity.[3] Nine compounds were isolated from the active ethylacetate fraction of the fruiting body and identified as protocatechuic acid, protocatechualdehyde, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, hispidin, davallialactone, hypholomine B, interfungins A and inoscavin A of which interfungins A is a potent inhibitor of protein glycation.[4] Extracts from fruit-bodies or mycelium of Phellinus linteus stimulate the hormonal and cell-mediated immune function; quench the inflammatory reactions caused by a variety of stimuli, and suppress tumor growth and metastasis.[5] References[edit] Further reading[edit] Cho, S.H.

External links[edit] Shiitake. The Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) is an edible mushroom native to East Asia, which is cultivated and consumed in many Asian countries. It is also considered a medicinal mushroom in some forms of traditional medicine.[1] Taxonomy and naming[edit] The name shiitake originates from its Japanese name, shiitake. listen (kanji: 椎茸). Shii is the Japanese name of the tree Castanopsis cuspidata that provides the dead logs on which it is typically cultivated, and take means "mushroom".

Other common names by which the mushroom is known in English include "Sawtooth oak mushroom", "black forest mushroom", "black mushroom", "golden oak mushroom", or "oakwood mushroom".[2] The species was formerly known as Lentinus edodes and Agaricus edodes. Wild Shiitake, Hokkaido Japan Cultivation history[edit] The Japanese cultivated the mushroom by cutting shii trees with axes and placing the logs by trees that were already growing shiitake or contained shiitake spores. Culinary use[edit] Japanese Ekiben"Shiitake-meshi" Agaricus subrufescens. Ophiocordyceps sinensis. Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a fungus that parasitizes larvae of ghost moths and produces a fruiting body valued as an herbal remedy.

The fungus germinates in the living larva, kills and mummifies it, and then the stalk-like fruiting body emerges from the corpse. It is known in English colloquially as caterpillar fungus, or by its more prominent foreign names (see below): yartsa gunbu or yatsa gunbu (Tibetan), or Dōng chóng xià cǎo (Chinese: 冬虫夏草; literally "winter worm, summer grass"). Of the various entomopathogenic fungi, Ophiocordyceps sinensis is one that has been used for at least 2000 years[2] to treat many diseases related to lungs, kidney, and also used as a natural Viagra.

Taxonomic History/ Systematics[edit] Caterpillars with emerging Ophiocordyceps sinensis Morphological Features[edit] Important developments in Classification[edit] Common Names[edit] Strangely, sometimes in Chinese English language texts Cordyceps sinensis is referred to as aweto [Hill H. Ecology[edit] Hericium erinaceus. Hericium erinaceus (also called Lion's Mane Mushroom, Bearded Tooth Mushroom, Hedgehog Mushroom, Satyr's Beard, Bearded Hedgehog Mushroom, pom pom mushroom, or Bearded Tooth Fungus) is an edible mushroom and medicinal mushroom in the tooth fungus group.

Native to North America, Europe and Asia[1] it can be identified by its tendency to grow all the spines out from one group (rather than branches), long spines (greater than 1 cm length) and its appearance on hardwoods. Hericium erinaceus can be mistaken for other species of Hericium, all popular edibles, which grow across the same range.

In the wild, these mushrooms are common during late summer and fall on hardwoods, particularly American Beech. As edible mushroom[edit] Hericium erinaceus is a choice edible when young, and the texture of the cooked mushroom is often compared to seafood. International names[edit] It is called hóu tóu gū (simplified: 猴头菇; traditional: 猴頭菇; lit. Hericium erinaceus research[edit] Gallery[edit] See also[edit] Pleurotus. Pleurotus means "side ear", from Greek πλευρή (pleurē), "side"[4] + ὠτός (ōtos), genitive of οὖς (ous), "ear".[5] Description[edit] The caps may be laterally attached (with no stem). If there is a stem, it is normally eccentric and the gills are decurrent along it.

The term pleurotoid is used for mushrooms having this general shape.[6] The spores are smooth and elongated (described as "cylindrical"). Where hyphae meet, they are joined by clamp connections. Pleurotus is not considered to be a bracket fungus, and most of the species are monomitic (with a soft consistency). Ecology[edit] Cuisine[edit] Oyster mushrooms are popular for cooking, torn up instead of sliced, especially in stir fry or sauté, because they are consistently thin, and so will cook more evenly than uncut mushrooms of other types.[11] Taxonomy[edit] Phylogeny[edit] Phylogenetic species[edit] Species of unclear relationship[edit] Former species[edit] See also[edit] Antromycopsis – an anamorphic form of Pleurotus References[edit] Laricifomes officinalis. Laricifomes officinalis is a wood-decay fungus in the order Polyporales.

It causes brown heart rot on conifers, and is found in Europe, Asia, and North America, as well as Morocco.[1] It is commonly known as agarikon, as well as the quinine conk due to its extremely bitter taste.[2][3] DNA analysis supports L. officinalis as being distinct from the genus Fomitopsis.[4] The conks were once collected extensively for production of medicinal quinine, which they were thought to contain, because of the bitter taste of the powdered conk. However, they do not contain quinine, and have no anti-malarial properties.[5] The decay is common only in a few old-growth stands.

Medicinal use[edit] Laricifomes officinalis was used by the Ancient Greeks to treat consumption (tuberculosis) according to the writings of Pedanius Dioscorides in 65 AD,[3] and by some indigenous people to treat small pox.[7] The presence of Agarikon at burial sites may indicate that its use was once widespread. Conservation[edit] Chaga mushroom. The chaga mushroom is considered a medicinal mushroom in Russian and Eastern European folk medicine and research on its medicinal potential is ongoing. However there is currently no evidence for its effectiveness or safety for medicinal use. Name[edit] The name chaga (pronounced "tsjaa-ga") comes from the Russian word of the mushroom (anglicized from czaga), which in turn is purportedly derived from the word for the fungus in Komi-Permyak, the language of the indigenous peoples in the Kama River Basin, west of the Ural Mountains.

It is also known as the clinker polypore, cinder conk, black mass and birch canker polypore.[2] In Norwegian, the name is kreftkjuke' which literally translates as "cancer polypore", referring to the fungus' appearance or to its alleged medicinal properties. In Finnish, the name is pakurikääpä, combined from pahkura and kääpä translating as "wart polypore". Medicinal use[edit] Chemical isolates[edit] Cultivation[edit] Chaga dietary supplements[edit] Preparation[edit] Grifola frondosa. Trametes versicolor. Trametes versicolor – also known as Coriolus versicolor and Polyporus versicolor – is a common polypore mushroom found throughout the world.

Meaning 'of several colours', versicolor reliably describes this mushroom found in different colors. By example, due to its resembling multiple colors in the tail of wild turkey, T. versicolor is commonly called turkey tail. Description and ecology[edit] The top surface of the cap shows typical concentric zones of different colours. May be eaten by caterpillars of the fungus moth Nemaxera betulinella and by maggots of the Platypezid fly Polyporivora picta.[1] Research and traditional medicine[edit] According to the American Cancer Society: "Available scientific evidence does not support claims that the raw mushroom itself is an effective anti-cancer agent in humans.

Gallery[edit] Two varieties of T. versicolor on the same tree stump.Close photo of T. versicolor.Close-up showing underside and pores of an older specimen of T. versicolor. See also[edit]