background preloader

Quantum Theory

Facebook Twitter

Physicists Are 'Breeding' Schrödinger's Cat, and it Could Reveal the Limits of the Quantum World. Physicists have figured out how to 'breed' Schrödinger's cat - an object in a quantum superposition of two states with opposite properties - to produce enlarged versions that could one day reveal the limits of the quantum world.

Physicists Are 'Breeding' Schrödinger's Cat, and it Could Reveal the Limits of the Quantum World

If they can continue to breed their 'cats' even bigger, the experiment could finally reveal the exact point at which objects switch between classical and quantum physics - the divide between the microscopic and macroscopic worlds that physicists have been chasing for decades. "One of the fundamental questions of physics is the boundary between the quantum and classical worlds. Can quantum phenomena, provided ideal conditions, be observed in macroscopic objects? " This strange light particle behaviour challenges our understanding of quantum theory. The Large Hadron Collider just identified 5 new subatomic particles. A Unique Find The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the latest addition to CERN’s accelerator complex, is the most powerful particle accelerator ever built.

The Large Hadron Collider just identified 5 new subatomic particles

It features a 27 kilometer (16 mile) ring made of superconducting magnets and accelerating structures built to boost the energy of particles in the chamber. In the accelerator, two high-energy particle beams are forced to collide from opposite directions at speeds close to the speed of light. The energy densities that are created when these collisions occur cause ordinary matter to melt into its constituent parts—quarks and gluons. It's Official. Cooling to Absolute Zero Is Mathematically Impossible. In Brief Scientists have proven the third law of thermodynamics.

It's Official. Cooling to Absolute Zero Is Mathematically Impossible

Proving this law true will help many areas of science, including quantum computing. Thermodynamics The laws of thermodynamics, a cornerstone of modern physics, help to explain how physical quantities act under certain conditions and in certain circumstances. These laws have mostly gone unchallenged, except for the third law. Power Rangers' Plan to Time Travel in Large Hadron Collider Isn't Sci-Fi. There’s something familiar about the time machine in the latest Justice League/Power Rangers crossover comic: In the latest issue of the series, the superheroes gather at the mouth of what seems to be the Large Hadron Collider, Geneva’s massive particle accelerator, discussing how to use it to jump across universes.

Power Rangers' Plan to Time Travel in Large Hadron Collider Isn't Sci-Fi

While the thought of using CERN’s masterpiece to open up portals to other dimensions seems to be a purely fictional conceit, the heroes aren’t the first to propose it. Real-life Vanderbilt University physicist Tom Weiler, Ph.D., dreamed it up first. Scientists Store Data on Single Atoms. Golden ratio discovered in quantum world: Hidden symmetry observed for the first time in solid state matter. Researchers from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie (HZB), in cooperation with colleagues from Oxford and Bristol Universities, as well as the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK, have for the first time observed a nanoscale symmetry hidden in solid state matter.

Golden ratio discovered in quantum world: Hidden symmetry observed for the first time in solid state matter

They have measured the signatures of a symmetry showing the same attributes as the golden ratio famous from art and architecture. The research team is publishing these findings in the Jan. 8, 2010 issue of the journal Science. Scientists Have Found the 'Holy Grail' of Physics, Metallic Hydrogen. Two Harvard scientists have succeeded in creating an entirely new substance long believed to be the “holy grail” of physics — metallic hydrogen, a material of unparalleled power that could one day propel humans into deep space.

Scientists Have Found the 'Holy Grail' of Physics, Metallic Hydrogen

The research was published Thursday in the journal Science. Scientists created the metallic hydrogen by pressurizing a hydrogen sample to more pounds per square inch than exists at the center of the Earth. Physicists have found a metal that conducts electricity but not heat. Researchers have identified a metal that conducts electricity without conducting heat - an incredibly useful property that defies our current understanding of how conductors work.

Physicists have found a metal that conducts electricity but not heat

The metal contradicts something called the Wiedemann-Franz Law, which basically states that good conductors of electricity will also be proportionally good conductors of heat, which is why things like motors and appliances get so hot when you use them regularly. "This was a totally unexpected finding," said lead researcher Junqiao Wu, from Berkeley Lab’s Materials Sciences Division. Scientists have measured the smallest fragment of time ever. Our understanding of time and the world around us just got way more precise.

Scientists have measured the smallest fragment of time ever

Physicists have successfully measured changes in an atom on the level of zeptoseconds. That's a trillionth of a billionth of a second - the smallest fragment of time ever observed. With this new level of detail, they were able to measure the entire process of an electron escaping its atom for the first time, in a stunning test of Einstein's photoelectric effect. The photoelectric effect was first proposed by Albert Einstein in 1905, and occurs when particles of light, known as photons, strike the electrons orbiting an atom. According to quantum mechanics, the energy from these photons is either absorbed entirely by one electron, or divided among a few of them.

Physicists might have found a way to break the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The laws of thermodynamics are some of the most important principles in modern physics, because they define how three fundamental physical quantities - temperature, energy, and entropy - behave under various circumstances.

Physicists might have found a way to break the Second Law of Thermodynamics

But now physicists say they’ve found a loophole in one of these laws, and it could create scenarios in which entropy - or disorder - actually decreases with time. Thanks to modern physics, almost everything in the Universe can be explained according to two theories: general relativity for the big stuff like stars, galaxies, and the Universe itself; and quantum mechanics, for behaviours on the atomic scale.

Boosting the force of empty space. Vacuum fluctuations may be among the most counter-intuitive phenomena of quantum physics.

Boosting the force of empty space

Theorists from the Weizmann Institute (Rehovot, Israel) and the Vienna University of Technology propose a way to amplify their force. Vacuum is not as empty as one might think. In fact, empty space is a bubbling soup of various virtual particles popping in and out of existence – a phenomenon called "vacuum fluctuations". Usually, such extremely short-lived particles remain completely unnoticed, but in certain cases vacuum forces can have a measurable effect. Helium atoms put in same quantum state, start appearing in same place. Quantum mechanics has so many counterintuitive features that it seems possible to learn a new one every month. Today's lesson involves particles that are set into the same quantum state and effectively become indistinguishable. Once they are indistinguishable, they start behaving that way, showing up in the same place even when we'd expect to see them distributed at random.

In today's issue of Nature, a paper describes getting atoms to behave this way, blurring the lines between a quantum probability function and what we think of as a physical object. The original issue of indistinguishability was highlighted in an experiment done decades ago using photons. Physicists Say Consciousness Might Be a State of Matter — NOVA Next. Physicists Zap a Semiconductor with a Laser, Accidentally Produce a New Quasiparticle.

Recently, a team of physicists was bombarding a film of gallium arsenide with a mode-locked titanium-sapphire laser. They focused the beam into an incredibly fine dot, just 100 nm, pulsed the beam for 320 femtosectonds (320 quadrillionths of a second), and waited to see what happened. You know, just another day in the lab. Icists show 'quantum freezing phenomenon' is universal. (—Physicists who work on quantum technologies are always looking for ways to manage decoherence, which occurs when a quantum system unavoidably interacts with the surrounding environment. In the past few years, scientists have discovered that some quantum correlations can be "frozen" in a constant state and remain that way in the presence of noise, potentially offering a protective mechanism against decoherence.

So far, however, quantum freezing has been shown to exist only on a case-by-case basis and under certain conditions, and its potential protective effect has not been fully exploited. Now in a new paper to be published in Nature Scientific Reports, physicists Marco Cianciaruso, Thomas Bromley, Wojciech Roga, Rosario Lo Franco, and Gerardo Adesso have shown that the freezing of quantum correlations is universal—that is, it is independent of the method used for measuring the correlations.

Digging into the “Giant Resonance”, scientists find hints of new quantum physics. A cooperation between theoretical and experimental physicists has uncovered previously unknown quantum states inside atoms. The results, described in a paper published today in the journal Nature Communications, allow a better understanding of some aspects of electron behaviour in atoms, which in turn could lead to better insights into technologically relevant materials.

Descubren la forma de «mirar» dentro de un agujero negro. Si rompemos un documento en mil pedazos, siempre habrá una forma de recomponerlo y acceder, por lo tanto, a la información que contenía. Si fragmentamos cualquier otro objeto, incluso si lo quemamos, será posible «interrogarle» después para que nos revele toda o parte de su información. Pero si enviamos información al interior de un agujero negro, ésta se perderá para siempre. Esto es, por lo menos, lo que los físicos han venido manteniendo desde hace décadas. Los agujeros negros son la última frontera, el punto de no retorno, entidades que que absorben materia (e información), y la evaporan al instante y sin dejar pista alguna de lo que alguna vez hubo en su interior. Sin embargo, una nueva investigación revela que esta perspectiva podría no ser del todo correcta.

«Según nuestro trabajo -afirma Dejan Stojkovic, primer firmante del artículo- la información no se pierde después de entrar en un agujero negro. Paradoja de la pérdida de la información Intercambio de «mediadores» Single-particle ‘spooky action at a distance’ finally demonstrated. For the first time, researchers have demonstrated what Albert Einstein called "spooky action at a distance" using a single particle.

Superfluid helium can leak through glass and climb out of its container. ‘Cloaking’ device uses ordinary lenses to hide objects across range of angles : NewsCenter. Doctoral student Joseph Choi is pictured with a a multidirectional `perfect paraxial’ cloak using 4 lenses. Inspired perhaps by Harry Potter’s invisibility cloak, scientists have recently developed several ways—some simple and some involving new technologies—to hide objects from view. The Mathematics of Quantum Atom Theory. Quantum Physics authors/titles recent submissions (40 skipped) 1408.1990.pdf. 1408.1769.pdf. [1407.3194] The quantum pigeonhole principle and the nature of quantum correlations.

Sub-Structure of the Electron and Mass Relation of Leptons and Nucleons. Quantum Mechanics’ contribution to Chemistry. NOTE: This is another essay I did for Chemistry during July 2011. My knowledge of Quantum Physics was quite limited at that time, so if the details and everything are not perfect please forgive me. Quantum Mechanics’ contribution to Chemistry.