Philosophy(ies) & Philosophers
'love of wisdom' Feb 12
Gottfried Leibniz coined the term 'theodicy' in an attempt to justify God's existence in light of the apparent imperfections of the world.
Consequentialism is the class of normative ethical theories holding that the consequences of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness of that conduct.
The birthplace of Hegel in Stuttgart , which now houses The Hegel Museum
Phänomenologie des Geistes (1807) is one of G.W.F. Hegel 's most important philosophical works.
Aristotle ( Ancient Greek : Ἀριστοτέλης [aristotélɛːs] , Aristotélēs ) (384 BC – 322 BC) [ 1 ] was a Greek philosopher and polymath , a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great . His writings cover many subjects, including physics , metaphysics , poetry , theater , music , logic , rhetoric , linguistics , politics , government , ethics , biology , and zoology . Together with Plato and Socrates (Plato's teacher), Aristotle is one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy.
Plato ( pron.: / ˈ p l eɪ t oʊ / ; Greek : Πλάτων , Plátōn , "broad"; [ 2 ] 424/423 BC [a] – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece .
The Allegory of the Cave —also known as the Analogy of the Cave , Plato's Cave , or the Parable of the Cave —is an allegory presented by the Greek philosopher Plato in his work The Republic to illustrate "our nature in its education and want of education " (514a). It is written as a dialogue between Plato's brother Glaucon and Plato's mentor Socrates , narrated by the latter at the beginning of Book VII (514a–520a). The Allegory of the Cave is presented after the metaphor of the sun (508b–509c) and the analogy of the divided line (509d–513e).
Socrates ( pron.: / ˈ s ɒ k r ə t iː z / ; Greek : Σωκράτης , Ancient Greek pronunciation: [sɔːkrátɛːs] , Sōkrátēs ; c. 469 BC – 399 BC) [ 1 ] was a classical Greek Athenian philosopher .
Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with reality , existence , knowledge , values , reason , mind , and language . [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument . [ 3 ] In more casual speech, by extension, "philosophy" can refer to "the most basic beliefs, concepts, and attitudes of an individual or group". [ 4 ] The word "philosophy" comes from the Ancient Greek φιλοσοφία ( philosophia ), which literally means "love of wisdom". [ 5 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ] The introduction of the terms "philosopher" and "philosophy" has been ascribed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras . [ 8 ] A "philosopher" was understood as a word which contrasted with " sophist ".
Gautama Buddha or Siddhārtha Gautama Buddha ( Sanskrit : सिद्धार्थ गौतम बुद्ध ; Pali : Siddhattha Gotama ), also called Sakyamuni [ note 1 ] , was a sage from the ancient Shakya republic [ note 2 ] , on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. [ 10 ] He is also referred to as "the Buddha" or simply as "Buddha."
Karma ( Sanskrit : कर्म [ 1 ] IPA: [ˈkarmə] ( listen ) ; Pali : kamma ) in Indian religions is the concept of "action" or "deed", understood as that which causes the entire cycle of cause and effect (i.e., the cycle called saṃsāra ) originating in ancient India and treated in the Hindu , Jain , Buddhist , and Sikh religions. [ 2 ]
Zeno of Citium
Parmenides was among the first to propose an ontological characterization of the fundamental nature of reality.
Metaphysics is a traditional branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world , [ 1 ] although the term is not easily defined. [ 2 ] Traditionally, metaphysics attempts to answer two basic questions in the broadest possible terms: [ 3 ] What is there ?
Axiology (from Greek ἀξίᾱ , axiā , "value, worth"; and -λόγος , -logos ) is the philosophical study of value . It is either the collective term for ethics and aesthetics [ 1 ] —philosophical fields that depend crucially on notions of value—or the foundation for these fields, and thus similar to value theory and meta-ethics . The term was first used in the early 20th century by Paul Lapie, in 1902, and Eduard von Hartmann , in 1908. [ 2 ]