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These High-Tech Glasses Will Give You Superhuman Vision. In Brief Researchers have designed filters that allow the human eye to distinguish between color hues that are ordinarily too close to tell apart.

These High-Tech Glasses Will Give You Superhuman Vision

These filters could be used to monitor the ripeness of fruits and vegetables or identify counterfeit money. Tetrachromatic Shades It can be impossible for humans to tell apart very similar colors. But, with a new pair of tetrachromatic glasses created by researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, you can never again leave the house wearing two items of black clothing that don’t quite match. These spectacles enhance the user’s existing color vision, affording them new power to discern more distinct shades.

Color vision in humans relies on short, medium, and long types of cone cells reacting to blue, green, and red wavelengths of light, respectively. “They look exactly the same and you look through the spectacles and, holy crap, they’re two different things,” Kats said in an interview with New Scientist. DARPA: We're Moving to Merge Humans and Machines. If You Can’t Beat Them… Without a doubt, computers and machines are besting humans in many ways thanks to developments in artificial intelligence (AI).

DARPA: We're Moving to Merge Humans and Machines

AIs have beaten their human counterparts at everything from games like Go and poker to driving safely and treating illnesses. Clearly, intelligent machines are increasingly becoming better than humans at so many things, and as the old saying goes, if you can’t beat them…merge with them. Given that AI is expected to surpass humankind at an unprecedented rate, that just might be the best thing we can do, and it’s the idea behind Elon Musk’s neural lace, an unconventional and highly controversial brain-computer interface.

That we’re even considering such a device highlights this necessity for a symbiosis between humans and machines. Musk explained: To some degree, we are already cyborgs. World's First Human Head Transplant Edges Closer To (Virtual) Reality. Worse Than Death?

World's First Human Head Transplant Edges Closer To (Virtual) Reality

Last year, Italian surgeon Sergio Canavero announced he is conducting the first human head transplant on Valery Spiridonov, a Russian man with muscular atrophy, in 2017. He hopes to perform the surgery in the UK, if they will let him. Last year, Hunt Batjer, president of the American Association for Neurological Surgeons, said that if the procedure works, Spiridonov could experience something far worse than death. “I would not wish this on anyone,” he said. This man is planning to receive a human head transplant in 2017. Russian Man Will Become Subject Of First Human Head Transplant Ever Performed. Neurosurgeon to attempt world's first head transplant. An Italian neurosurgeon has unveiled plans to perform the first human head transplant by the end of 2017.

Neurosurgeon to attempt world's first head transplant

Dr Sergio Canavero announced his plan at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Neurological and Orthopaedic Surgeons in the US state of Maryland on Friday, saying he believes he has a 90 percent chance of success. He said his patient will be a 30-year-old Russian man, Valery Spiridonov, who has the muscle-wasting disease, Werdnig-Hoffmann. "Of course there is a margin of risk, I cannot deny that," Canavero said.

First human head transplant could happen in two years - health - 25 February 2015. Read full article Continue reading page |1|2 A radical plan for transplanting a head onto someone else’s body is set to be announced.

First human head transplant could happen in two years - health - 25 February 2015

Human Head Transplants Could Become A Reality By 2017. Head transplants, or body transplants depending on how you look at them, are not just a thing of quirky horror movies.

Human Head Transplants Could Become A Reality By 2017

The first documented procedure was carried out back in the ‘50s when surgeon and transplant pioneer Vladimir Demikhov grafted the head and forelimbs of a puppy onto the body of a different dog. Disturbingly, he followed this with his more famous work, which involved the creation of two-headed dogs. Unsurprisingly, none of his animals lasted for more than a few days. Is it Possible to Transfer your Consciousness from One Body to Another? The idea of being able to completely transfer your mind from one brain to another sounds like something straight out of science fiction.

Is it Possible to Transfer your Consciousness from One Body to Another?

In fact, there are a couple of major movies that have broached the subject. Movies like The 6th Day from 2000, and more recently Selfless from 2015, both deal with the idea of being able to record and transfer your consciousness from one body to another. For starters, let’s talk about what our consciousness really is. Our current mental state is nothing but a series of memories, in essence. We remember experiences, emotions, and reactions that makes up who we are in our brains.

In short: yes. 3D Printed Brain Tissue Has Arrived. In Brief Australian researchers have developed a novel method for constructing layered biological structures that looks just like cerebral cortex tissue using a handheld 3D printer.

3D Printed Brain Tissue Has Arrived

Neuroscientists rarely get the opportunity to study the human brain directly, and so work on cells or tissue slices that have been dissected from animals and grown in Petri dishes. How Tiny Lab-Grown Human Brains Are Giving Big Insights Into Autism - Singularity HUB. First came lab-grown mini-hearts.

How Tiny Lab-Grown Human Brains Are Giving Big Insights Into Autism - Singularity HUB

Then came 3D printed skin. Now scientists have taken “body on a chip” to a whole new level. Starting with skin cells from patient biopsies, scientists transformed them back into stem cells, and from those grew pea-sized, self-organizing, crazy-looking nuggets of living — yes, LIVING — brain. These “cerebral organoids” are the brainchild of Dr. How Do Artificial Neural Networks Learn? This post was originally written by Manan Shah as a response to a question on Quora.

How Do Artificial Neural Networks Learn?

The field of artificial neural networks is extremely complicated and readily evolving. In order to understand neural networks and how they process information, it is critical to examine how these networks function and the basic models that are used in such a process. What are artificial neural networks? Artificial neural networks are parallel computational models (unlike our computers, which have a single processor to collect and display information). These networks are commonly made up of multiple simple processors which are able to act in parallel alongside one another to model changing systems. The basis for these networks originated from the biological neuron and neural structures – every neuron takes in multiple unique inputs and produces one output. Swedish scientists create an artificial neuron that mimicks an organic one. Chemical-to-electrical-to-chemical signal transmission.

A conventional neuron (upper panel) senses chemical signals (orange circles), which trigger an electrical pulse of membrane depolarization (action potential) along the axon, causing chemical release at the axon terminals (blue circles). This process can be mimicked (lower panel) by a chemical biosensor (for glutamate or acetylcholine) connected to an axon-mimicking organic electronic ion pump that transmits electrons/ions and generates chemicals — forming an organic electronic biomimetic neuron. (credit: Daniel T. Simon et al. Scientists Grow Human Serotonin Neurons in Petri Dish - Futurism. In Brief For the first time ever, researchers have generated human serotonin neurons from human fibroblasts, the cells that give rise to connective tissue in the body. Because obtaining live human serotonin neurons to study disease have been near impossible, almost all prior research has been done using lab animals. This research completely changes this paradigm by generating human serotonin in a petri dish.To produce the serotonergic neurons from fiberblasts, the team introduced four genes that typically control development.

The result was neurons that were electrophysiologically active and demonstrate both the controlled release and the selective uptake of serotonin.Such induced serotonin neurons are extremely beneficial since they can be generated from individual patients suffering from illnesses involving the neurotransmitter. Scientists create synthetic membranes that grow like living cells. Growing cell membranes are seen in this time lapse sequence (numbers correspond to minutes of duration) (credit: Michael Hardy, UC San Diego) Chemists and biologists at UC San Diego have succeeded in designing and synthesizing an artificial cell membrane capable of sustaining continual growth, just like a living cell.

Their achievement will allow scientists to more accurately replicate the behavior of living cell membranes, which until now have been modeled only by synthetic cell membranes without the ability to add new phospholipids. Structure of a phospholipid, a major component of all cell membranes (credit: Wikimedia Commons) A Woman Has Been Given A New 3D Printed Skull. A team from the University Medical Centre, Utrecht, have made medical history by successfully replacing a woman's entire skull with a plastic one made by a 3D printer.

The 22-year old woman was suffering from a condition where her skull started thickening, and had reached nearly 3 times the thickness of a normal human skull. The team decided to use a plastic skull because conventional methods are often less than perfect. Neurologist Ben Verweij who led the team said that the woman is recovering well from the procedure which took place 3 months ago, and is not suffering any symptoms. "Using 3D printing we can make one that's the exact size. This not only has great cosmetic advantages, but patients' brain function often recovers better than using the old method" he added. Face ready for Transplant. Researchers can now 3D-print nose cartilage in 16 minutes. 'We've Found a Cure for Baldness,' Says Japan's Shiseido. In Brief After ten years of scientific research, Japanese company Shiseido has patented its RepliCel Hair-01 (RCH-01) hair regeneration technology.

The treatment uses autologous cell transplantation technology where specific cells isolated from the hair follicles are taken from the scalp, cultured, and then implanted into the balding area to stimulate residing hair follicles and promote new hair growth.The Tokyo-based company has worked on hair research since it was formed in 1872, producing a number of tonics and oils, using its origin in pharmacology as an advantage. It has also been promoting scalp and hair biology research from genetic and cellular levels for several years.

Scientists Grow Hair Using Stem Cells. For the first time, a team of U.S. scientists has developed a technique to convert human stem cells into a type of cell that is capable of initiating hair growth. Could This Finally Be the Cure for Balding? - Futurism. Tooth Regeneration Gel Could Replace Painful Fillings. Growing Out New Teeth. Stem-Cell Dental Implants Grow New Teeth Right In Your Mouth. In Brief Dr. Bioengineering Missing Teeth. Scientists Develop Telescopic Contact Lenses That Can Zoom 3X. Over the past year, we’ve heard about some pretty interesting developments in the world of contact lenses. Bionic Eye Successfully Implanted, Restores Sight To 80-Year-Old Man. Bionic eye. A Biotech Startup Wants To Replace Your Eyeballs With Synthetic Ones. In Brief The concept is called Enhance Your Eye (EYE, of course) and are made from a 3D bioprinter, which uses a special needle to drop different types of cells into the appropriate alignment and structure.

The way Nassetti envisions it, users could choose between three different types of synthetic EYEs: Heal, Enhance, and Advance. Retinal Implants Restore Partial Sight To Three Blind. A microchip with 1,500 light sensors sits beneath the retina and stimulates neurons which project to the brain's visual cortex. The blind really are beginning to see again. Bionic Eyes Can Already Restore Vision, Soon They'll Make It Superhuman. Stem Cell Treatment Successfully Restores Sight. Bionic Eye Successfully Implanted, Restores Sight To 80-Year-Old Man - Futurism. Mayo Clinic patient's first impressions with bionic eye - Futurism. Robo-Eye to Enter US Market.

Superhuman Vision Is Possible With Terminator-Like Contact Lenses. Inject Your Eyeballs With Night Vision. Soon You'll Be Able to Turn Your Brown Eyes Blue for $5,000 - Futurism. Google Seeks to Integrate Cameras Into Contact Lenses. Google’s smart contact lens measures the glucose levels in tears.