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Utilitarianism

Utilitarianism
Utilitarianism is influential in political philosophy. Bentham and Mill believed that a utilitarian government was achievable through democracy. Mill thought that despotism was also justifiable through utilitarianism as a transitional phase towards more democratic forms of governance. As an advocate of liberalism, Mill stressed the relationship between utilitarianism and individualism.[10] Historical background[edit] The importance of happiness as an end for humans has long been recognized. Although utilitarianism is usually thought to start with Jeremy Bentham, there were earlier writers who presented theories that were strikingly similar. Hume says that all determinations of morality, this circumstance of public utility principally important. In the first three editions of the book, Hutcheson included various mathematical algorithms "...to compute the Morality of any Actions." This pursuit of happiness is given a theological basis:[22] …actions are to be estimated by their tendency. Related:  Thomas Carlyle

Transcendentalism Transcendentalism is a religious and philosophical movement that developed during the late 1820s and '30s[1] in the Eastern region of the United States as a protest against the general state of spirituality and, in particular, the state of intellectualism at Harvard University and the doctrine of the Unitarian church as taught at Harvard Divinity School. Among the transcendentalists' core beliefs was the inherent goodness of both people and nature. They believe that society and its institutions—particularly organized religion and political parties—ultimately corrupt the purity of the individual. They have faith that people are at their best when truly "self-reliant" and independent. History[edit] Origins[edit] Transcendentalism is closely related to Unitarianism, the dominant religious movement in Boston at the early nineteenth century. Emerson's Nature[edit] So shall we come to look at the world with new eyes. The Transcendental Club[edit] Second wave of transcendentalists[edit] Notes[edit]

Natural Law Theory legal definition of Natural Law Theory The unwritten body of universal moral principles that underlie the ethical and legal norms by which human conduct is sometimes evaluated and governed. Natural law is often contrasted with positive law, which consists of the written rules and regulations enacted by government. The term natural law is derived from the Roman term jus naturale. Naturalists believe that natural law principles are an inherent part of nature and exist regardless of whether government recognizes or enforces them. Divine natural law represents the system of principles believed to have been revealed or inspired by God or some other supreme and supernatural being. Divine Natural Law Proponents of divine natural law contend that law must be made to conform to the commands they believe were laid down or inspired by God, or some other deity, who governs according to principles of compassion, truth, and justice. The influence of divine natural law pervaded the colonial period of U.S. law. The U.S. Secular Natural Law

William Godwin Early life and education[edit] He then acted as a minister at Ware, Stowmarket and Beaconsfield. At Stowmarket the teachings of the French philosophers were brought before him by a friend, Joseph Fawcett, who held strong republican opinions. Early writing[edit] His first published work was an anonymous Life of Lord Chatham (1783). Enquiry Concerning Political Justice and Caleb Williams[edit] Godwin augmented the influence of Political Justice with the publication of a novel that proved equally popular, Things as They Are; or, The Adventures of Caleb Williams. Political writing[edit] Godwin, consistent in his theory and stubborn in his practice, practically lived in secret for 30 years because of his reputation. Interpretation of political justice[edit] By the words "political justice" the author meant "the adoption of any principle of morality and truth into the practice of a community," and the work was therefore an inquiry into the principles of society, government and morals.

Übermensch The Übermensch (German for "Overman, Overhuman, Above-Human, Superman, Super-human"; German pronunciation: [ˈˀyːbɐmɛnʃ]) is a concept in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. Nietzsche had his character Zarathustra posit the Übermensch as a goal for humanity to set for itself in his 1883 book Thus Spoke Zarathustra (German: Also Sprach Zarathustra), although Nietzsche clearly disagreed with many things he had Zarathustra say. There is no consensus regarding the precise meaning of the Übermensch, nor on the importance of the concept in Nietzsche's thought. There are other conceptions of superhuman nature besides those that are labeled Übermensch. Übermensch in English[edit] The German prefix über can have connotations of superiority, transcendence, excessiveness, or intensity, depending on the words to which it is prepended.[3] Mensch refers to a member of the human species, rather than to a male specifically. This-worldliness[edit] Death of God and the creation of new values[edit]

The Natural Law Tradition in Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 1. Key Features of Natural Law Theories Even though we have already confined ‘natural law theory’ to its use as a term that marks off a certain class of ethical theories, we still have a confusing variety of meanings to contend with. Some writers use the term with such a broad meaning that any moral theory that is a version of moral realism — that is, any moral theory that holds that some positive moral claims are literally true (for this conception of moral realism, see Sayre-McCord 1988)— counts as a natural law view. For Aquinas, there are two key features of the natural law, features the acknowledgment of which structures his discussion of the natural law at Question 94 of the Prima Secundae of the Summa Theologiae. 1.1 Natural law and divine providence 1.2 Natural law and practical rationality The precepts of the natural law are binding by nature: no beings could share our human nature yet fail to be bound by the precepts of the natural law. 1.3 The substance of the natural law view

Political Justice Title page from the third edition of Political Justice Enquiry Concerning Political Justice and its Influence on Morals and Happiness (1793) outlines the political philosophy of the 18th-century philosopher William Godwin. Background and publication[edit] Content[edit] Despite being published during the French Revolution, the French Revolutionary Wars, and the lead up to the 1794 Treason Trials in Britain, Political Justice argues that humanity will inevitably progress: it argues for human perfectibility and enlightenment.[1] McCann explains that "Political Justice is ... first and foremost a critique of political institutions. Godwin argued that the link between politics and morality had been severed and he wanted to restore it. Godwin was not a revolutionary in the vein of John Thelwall and the London Corresponding Society. However, paradoxes and contradictions surface throughout Political Justice. Impact[edit] Notes[edit] Bibliography[edit] McCann, Andrew. External links[edit]

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (pronounced [ˈmoːɦənd̪aːs ˈkərəmtʃənd̪ ˈɡaːnd̪ʱi] ( ); 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was the preeminent leader of Indian nationalism in British-ruled India. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. The honorific Mahatma (Sanskrit: "high-souled", "venerable"[2])—applied to him first in 1914 in South Africa,[3]—is now used worldwide. He is also called Bapu (Gujarati: endearment for "father",[4] "papa"[4][5]) in India. Gandhi famously led Indians in challenging the British-imposed salt tax with the 400 km (250 mi) Dandi Salt March in 1930, and later in calling for the British to Quit India in 1942. Gandhi is commonly, though not officially,[10] considered the Father of the Nation[11] in India. Early life and background Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi in his earliest known photo, aged 7, c. 1876 English barrister Civil rights movement in South Africa (1893–1914)

KWL Print – KWL Print & Digital Publications The thirteenth book in the series Catholic Studies for Senior Secondary Students spans the last two years of secondary education or high school, pre-university levels in Australia and many other countries. Most of the content is also appropriate for adult education. Every chapter is cross-referenced with the Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, which is meant to be used with this text. Themes selected by a working committee were prepared by invited writers, with the needs of students aged between 16 and 18 in view. Chapter 5, Vocation and Life, combines a Christian philosophy of life itself as “vocation”, with the specific vocations: marriage, single life, religious life, priesthood etc. After trialling and following a proven curriculum, it was thought best to reserve Catholics and Ecumenism, chapter 7 , and Catholics and World Religions, chapter 8, to these final high school levels. Bishop Peter Elliott, General Editor A Tour through the Chapters of Catholic Studies

Mary Wollstonecraft Mary Wollstonecraft (/ˈwʊlstən.krɑːft/; 27 April 1759 – 10 September 1797) was an eighteenth-century English writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights. During her brief career, she wrote novels, treatises, a travel narrative, a history of the French Revolution, a conduct book, and a children's book. Wollstonecraft is best known for A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), in which she argues that women are not naturally inferior to men, but appear to be only because they lack education. Until the late 20th century, Wollstonecraft's life, which encompassed several unconventional personal relationships, received more attention than her writing. After Wollstonecraft's death, her widower published a Memoir (1798) of her life, revealing her unorthodox lifestyle, which inadvertently destroyed her reputation for almost a century. Biography Early life Wollstonecraft was born on 27 April 1759 in Spitalfields, London. Two friendships shaped Wollstonecraft's early life.

Beyond Good and Evil Beyond Good and Evil: Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future (German: Jenseits von Gut und Böse: Vorspiel einer Philosophie der Zukunft) is a book by philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, first published in 1886. It draws on and expands the ideas of his previous work, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, but with a more critical and polemical approach. In Beyond Good and Evil, Nietzsche accuses past philosophers of lacking critical sense and blindly accepting dogmatic premises in their consideration of morality. Specifically, he accuses them of founding grand metaphysical systems upon the faith that the good man is the opposite of the evil man, rather than just a different expression of the same basic impulses that find more direct expression in the evil man. Background and themes[edit] Of the four "late-period" writings of Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil most closely resembles the aphoristic style of his middle period. Structure of the work[edit] On philosophers, free spirits, and scholars[edit] Notes[edit]

Dignitatis humanae 1. A sense of the dignity of the human person has been impressing itself more and more deeply on the consciousness of contemporary man,(1) and the demand is increasingly made that men should act on their own judgment, enjoying and making use of a responsible freedom, not driven by coercion but motivated by a sense of duty. The demand is likewise made that constitutional limits should be set to the powers of government, in order that there may be no encroachment on the rightful freedom of the person and of associations. This demand for freedom in human society chiefly regards the quest for the values proper to the human spirit. First, the council professes its belief that God Himself has made known to mankind the way in which men are to serve Him, and thus be saved in Christ and come to blessedness. This Vatican Council likewise professes its belief that it is upon the human conscience that these obligations fall and exert their binding force. 2. 3. There is a further consideration. 4.

Utilitarianism or consequentialism analyses potential outcomes to balance risks against potential benefits that research may offer. In stressing the outcomes and calculating cost-benefits, utilitarianism can sometimes be unprincipled. It may allow 'the ends to justify the means' too much, or it may tolerate harm to a minority if this is likely to benefit the majority. by raviii Jul 15

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