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John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill, FRSE (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was an English philosopher, political economist and civil servant. He was an influential contributor to social theory, political theory and political economy. He has been called "the most influential English-speaking philosopher of the nineteenth century".[3] Mill's conception of liberty justified the freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state control.[4] He was a proponent of utilitarianism, an ethical theory developed by Jeremy Bentham. Hoping to remedy the problems found in an inductive approach to science, such as confirmation bias, he clearly set forth the premises of falsifiability as the key component in the scientific method.[5] Mill was also a Member of Parliament and an important figure in liberal political philosophy. Biography[edit] John Stuart Mill was born on Rodney Street in the Pentonville area of London, the eldest son of the Scottish philosopher, historian and economist James Mill, and Harriet Burrow. Related:  Thomas CarlylePhilosophy

Ralph Waldo Emerson Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, lecturer, and poet, who led the Transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century. He was seen as a champion of individualism and a prescient critic of the countervailing pressures of society, and he disseminated his thoughts through dozens of published essays and more than 1,500 public lectures across the United States. He remains among the linchpins of the American romantic movement,[3] and his work has greatly influenced the thinkers, writers and poets that have followed him. When asked to sum up his work, he said his central doctrine was "the infinitude of the private man. Early life, family, and education[edit] Emerson was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on May 25, 1803,[6] son of Ruth Haskins and the Rev. In 1826, faced with poor health, Emerson went to seek out warmer climates. While in St. Early career[edit] Literary career and Transcendentalism[edit] Ralph Waldo Emerson in 1859

List of liberal theorists Individual contributors to classical liberalism and political liberalism are associated with philosophers of the Enlightenment. Liberalism as a specifically named ideology begins in the late 18th century as a movement towards self-government and away from aristocracy. It included the ideas of self-determination, the primacy of the individual and the nation, as opposed to the state and religion, as being the fundamental units of law, politics and economy. Classical contributors to Liberalism[edit] Laozi[edit] Laozi (China, 6th century BCE) is the author of the classic Chinese text, the Tao Te Ching, and the founder of Taoist philosophy. Aristotle[edit] Aristotle. In addition, Aristotle was a firm supporter of private property. "Humanism"[edit] Niccolò Machiavelli[edit] Niccolò Machiavelli. Contributing literature: Il Principe, 1513 (The Prince, [1])Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio, 1512-1517 (Discourse on the First Decade of Titus Livius) Desiderius Erasmus[edit] Desiderius Erasmus

Jean-Paul Sartre His work has also influenced sociology, critical theory, post-colonial theory, and literary studies, and continues to influence these disciplines. Sartre has also been noted for his open relationship with the prominent feminist theorist Simone de Beauvoir. He was awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize in Literature but refused it, saying that he always declined official honors and that "a writer should not allow himself to be turned into an institution".[2] Biography[edit] Early life[edit] Jean-Paul Sartre was born in Paris as the only child of Jean-Baptiste Sartre, an officer of the French Navy, and Anne-Marie Schweitzer.[3] His mother was of Alsatian origin and the first cousin of Nobel Prize laureate Albert Schweitzer. In 1929 at the École Normale, he met Simone de Beauvoir, who studied at the Sorbonne and later went on to become a noted philosopher, writer, and feminist. World War II[edit] French journalists visit General George C. Cold War politics and anticolonialism[edit]

John Ruskin John Ruskin (8 February 1819 – 20 January 1900) was the leading English art critic of the Victorian era, also an art patron, draughtsman, watercolourist, a prominent social thinker and philanthropist. He wrote on subjects ranging from geology to architecture, myth to ornithology, literature to education, and botany to political economy. His writing styles and literary forms were equally varied. Ruskin penned essays and treatises, poetry and lectures, travel guides and manuals, letters and even a fairy tale. The elaborate style that characterised his earliest writing on art was later superseded by a preference for plainer language designed to communicate his ideas more effectively. He was hugely influential in the latter half of the 19th century, and up to the First World War. Ruskin first came to widespread attention with the first volume of Modern Painters (1843), an extended essay in defence of the work of J. Early life (1819–1846)[edit] Genealogy[edit] Childhood and education[edit]

Walter Walsh Colonel Walter Rudolph Walsh (born May 4, 1907) is a former FBI agent, USMC shooting instructor and Olympic shooter. Walsh joined the FBI in 1934, serving during the Public enemy era, and was involved in several high-profile FBI cases, including the capture of Arthur Barker and the killing of Al Brady. He served in the Pacific theatre during World War II with the Marine Corps and, after a brief return to the FBI, served as a shooting instructor with the Marine Corps until his retirement in the 1970s. A high profile shooter, Walsh won numerous tournaments within the FBI and the Marine Corps, as well as nationally, and participated in the 1948 Summer Olympics. Early life and FBI career[edit] Walsh was born in Union City, New Jersey.[1] He joined the Civilian Military Training Corps at age 16, and the New Jersey Army National Guard in 1928.[2] After graduating from Rutgers Law School, Walsh joined the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1934. Shooting and the Olympics[edit] Later life[edit]

Social liberalism Social liberalism is the belief that liberalism should include a social foundation. Social liberalism seeks to balance individual liberty and social justice. A reaction against social liberalism in the late twentieth century, often called neoliberalism, led to monetarist economic policies and a reduction in government provision of services. However, this reaction did not result in a return to classical liberalism, as governments continued to provide social services and retained control over economic policy.[13] Origins[edit] United Kingdom[edit] By the end of the nineteenth century, the principles of classical liberalism were challenged by downturns in economic growth, a growing perception of the evils of poverty, unemployment and relative deprivation present within modern industrial cities, and the agitation of organized labour. Germany[edit] In late nineteenth century Germany, left-liberals established trade unions in order to help workers improve working and economic conditions.

Thomas Carlyle Thomas Carlyle (4 December 1795 – 5 February 1881) was a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist, historian and teacher.[1] Considered one of the most important social commentators of its time, he presented many lectures during his lifetime with certain acclaim in the Victorian era. One of those conferences resulted in his famous work On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and The Heroic in History where he explains that the key role in history lies in the actions of the "Great Man", claiming that "History is nothing but the biography of the Great Man". He was a very respected historian and his book The French Revolution: A History remains popular nowadays and it was the inspiration for Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities. Carlyle's Sartor Resartus is considered one of the finest works of the 19th century. In mathematics, he is known for the Carlyle circle,[6] a method used in quadratic equations and for developing ruler-and-compass constructions of regular polygons. Early life and influences[edit]

Marshall "Eddie" Conway Marshall Conway (born April 23, 1946) was the Minister of Defense of the Baltimore chapter of the Black Panther Party. In addition to his position within the Black Panther Party he was also employed by the United States Postal Service. Conway, however, was unaware that some of the founding members of the Baltimore chapter were actually undercover police officers with the Baltimore Police Department. These officers would report daily on his particular activities within the chapter. At the same time, the Federal Bureau of Investigation had also started its own investigation of Conway, recording his whereabouts, contacting his employers at the Post Office and maintaining liaison with the Baltimore Police Department.[1] Crime[edit] On the night of April 21, 1970, Baltimore Police Officers Donald Sager and Stanley Sierakowski were shot by three assailants who fired at least eight rounds at the officers during their response to a domestic disturbance call. Trial[edit] Controversy[edit]

Epiphenomenalism Epiphenomenalism is a mind-body philosophy marked by the belief that basic physical events (sense organs, neural impulses, and muscle contractions) are causal with respect to mental events (thought, consciousness, and cognition). Mental events are viewed as completely dependent on physical functions and, as such, have no independent existence or causal efficacy; it is a mere appearance. Fear seems to make the heart beat faster; though, according to epiphenomenalism, the state of the nervous system causes the heart to beat faster.[1] Because mental events are a kind of overflow that cannot cause anything physical, epiphenomenalism is viewed as a version of monism.[2] Development[edit] During the seventeenth century, Rene Descartes argued that animals are subject to mechanical laws of nature. Thomas Henry Huxley agreed with Descartes that behavior is determined solely by physical mechanisms, but he also believed that humans enjoy an intelligent life. Arguments for Epiphenomenalism[edit]

Unto This Last "Unto This Last" is an essay on economy by John Ruskin, first published in December 1860 in the monthly journal Cornhill Magazine in four articles. Ruskin says himself that these articles were "very violently criticized", forcing the publisher to stop the publication after four months. Subscribers sent protest letters. But Ruskin countered the attack and published the four articles in a book in May 1862. The title is a quotation from the Parable of the Workers in the Vineyard. I will give unto this last, even as unto thee. The "last" are the eleventh hour labourers, who are paid as if they had worked the entire day. The eleventh hour labourers, etching by Jan Luyken based on the Parable of the Workers in the Vineyard The essay begins with the following verse:[2] “Friend, I do thee no wrong. Gandhi's paraphrase[edit] Gandhi translated "Unto This Last" into Gujarati in 1908 under the title of "Sarvodaya" ("well being of all"). References[edit] External links[edit]

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