Ralph Waldo Emerson Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, lecturer, and poet, who led the Transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century. He was seen as a champion of individualism and a prescient critic of the countervailing pressures of society, and he disseminated his thoughts through dozens of published essays and more than 1,500 public lectures across the United States. He remains among the linchpins of the American romantic movement, and his work has greatly influenced the thinkers, writers and poets that have followed him. When asked to sum up his work, he said his central doctrine was "the infinitude of the private man. Early life, family, and education Emerson was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on May 25, 1803, son of Ruth Haskins and the Rev. In 1826, faced with poor health, Emerson went to seek out warmer climates. While in St. Early career Literary career and Transcendentalism Ralph Waldo Emerson in 1859
Jean-Paul Sartre His work has also influenced sociology, critical theory, post-colonial theory, and literary studies, and continues to influence these disciplines. Sartre has also been noted for his open relationship with the prominent feminist theorist Simone de Beauvoir. He was awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize in Literature but refused it, saying that he always declined official honors and that "a writer should not allow himself to be turned into an institution". Biography Early life Jean-Paul Sartre was born in Paris as the only child of Jean-Baptiste Sartre, an officer of the French Navy, and Anne-Marie Schweitzer. His mother was of Alsatian origin and the first cousin of Nobel Prize laureate Albert Schweitzer. In 1929 at the École Normale, he met Simone de Beauvoir, who studied at the Sorbonne and later went on to become a noted philosopher, writer, and feminist. World War II French journalists visit General George C. Cold War politics and anticolonialism
Freedom of thought Overview Without freedom of thought there can be no such thing as wisdom & no such thing as publick liberty without freedom of speech, Benjamin Franklin, 1722. 'Freedom of thought' is the precursor and progenitor of -and thus is closely linked to- other liberties: freedom of religion, freedom of speech, and freedom of expression. It is a very important concept in the western world and nearly all  democratic constitutions protect these freedoms. For instance, the U.S. Bill of Rights contains the famous guarantee in the First Amendment that laws may not be made that interfere with religion "or prohibiting the free exercise thereof". Freedom of thought... is the matrix, the indispensable condition, of nearly every other form of freedom. Such ideas are also a vital part of international human rights law. The Human Rights Committee states that this, "distinguishes the freedom of thought, conscience, religion or belief from the freedom to manifest religion or belief.
Ragged Trousered Philosopher I met god the other day. I know what you're thinking. How the hell did you know it was god? Well, I'll explain as we go along, but basically he convinced me by having all, and I do mean ALL, the answers. Which is odd, because I'm still an atheist and we even agree on that! It all started on the 8.20 back from Paddington. What did he look like? Well not what you might have expected that's for sure. 'Anyone sitting here?' 'Help yourself' I replied. Sits down, relaxes, I ignore and back to the correspondence on genetically modified crops entering the food chain... Train pulls out and a few minutes later he speaks. 'Can I ask you a question?' Fighting to restrain my left eyebrow I replied 'Yes' in a tone which was intended to convey that I might not mind one question, and possibly a supplementary, but I really wasn't in the mood for a conversation. 'Why don't you believe in god?' The Bastard! I love this kind of conversation and can rabbit on for hours about the nonsense of theist beliefs. 'Stottle.
John Ruskin John Ruskin (8 February 1819 – 20 January 1900) was the leading English art critic of the Victorian era, also an art patron, draughtsman, watercolourist, a prominent social thinker and philanthropist. He wrote on subjects ranging from geology to architecture, myth to ornithology, literature to education, and botany to political economy. His writing styles and literary forms were equally varied. Ruskin penned essays and treatises, poetry and lectures, travel guides and manuals, letters and even a fairy tale. The elaborate style that characterised his earliest writing on art was later superseded by a preference for plainer language designed to communicate his ideas more effectively. He was hugely influential in the latter half of the 19th century, and up to the First World War. Ruskin first came to widespread attention with the first volume of Modern Painters (1843), an extended essay in defence of the work of J. Early life (1819–1846) Genealogy Childhood and education
Social liberalism Social liberalism is the belief that liberalism should include a social foundation. Social liberalism seeks to balance individual liberty and social justice. A reaction against social liberalism in the late twentieth century, often called neoliberalism, led to monetarist economic policies and a reduction in government provision of services. However, this reaction did not result in a return to classical liberalism, as governments continued to provide social services and retained control over economic policy. Origins United Kingdom By the end of the nineteenth century, the principles of classical liberalism were challenged by downturns in economic growth, a growing perception of the evils of poverty, unemployment and relative deprivation present within modern industrial cities, and the agitation of organized labour. Germany In late nineteenth century Germany, left-liberals established trade unions in order to help workers improve working and economic conditions.
Euclid "Euclid" is the anglicized version of the Greek name Εὐκλείδης, meaning "Good Glory". Life Little is known about Euclid's life, as there are only a handful of references to him. The date and place of Euclid's birth and the date and circumstances of his death are unknown, and only roughly estimated in proximity to contemporary figures mentioned in references. Euclid is rarely, if ever, referred to by name by other Greek mathematicians from Archimedes onward, who instead call him "ό στοιχειώτης" ("the author of Elements"). The few historical references to Euclid were written centuries after he lived, by Proclus ca. 450 AD and Pappus of Alexandria ca. 320 AD. Proclus later retells a story that, when Ptolemy I asked if there was a shorter path to learning geometry than Euclid's Elements, "Euclid replied there is no royal road to geometry A detailed biography of Euclid is given by Arabian authors, mentioning, for example, a birth town of Tyre. Elements Other works See also Notes References
15 Things Kurt Vonnegut Said Better Than Anyone Else Ever Has Or Will | Books | Inventory 1. "I urge you to please notice when you are happy, and exclaim or murmur or think at some point, 'If this isn't nice, I don't know what is.'"The actual advice here is technically a quote from Kurt Vonnegut's "good uncle" Alex, but Vonnegut was nice enough to pass it on at speeches and in A Man Without A Country. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.
Thomas Carlyle Thomas Carlyle (4 December 1795 – 5 February 1881) was a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist, historian and teacher. Considered one of the most important social commentators of its time, he presented many lectures during his lifetime with certain acclaim in the Victorian era. One of those conferences resulted in his famous work On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and The Heroic in History where he explains that the key role in history lies in the actions of the "Great Man", claiming that "History is nothing but the biography of the Great Man". He was a very respected historian and his book The French Revolution: A History remains popular nowadays and it was the inspiration for Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities. Carlyle's Sartor Resartus is considered one of the finest works of the 19th century. In mathematics, he is known for the Carlyle circle, a method used in quadratic equations and for developing ruler-and-compass constructions of regular polygons. Early life and influences
Epiphenomenalism Epiphenomenalism is a mind-body philosophy marked by the belief that basic physical events (sense organs, neural impulses, and muscle contractions) are causal with respect to mental events (thought, consciousness, and cognition). Mental events are viewed as completely dependent on physical functions and, as such, have no independent existence or causal efficacy; it is a mere appearance. Fear seems to make the heart beat faster; though, according to epiphenomenalism, the state of the nervous system causes the heart to beat faster. Because mental events are a kind of overflow that cannot cause anything physical, epiphenomenalism is viewed as a version of monism. Development During the seventeenth century, Rene Descartes argued that animals are subject to mechanical laws of nature. Thomas Henry Huxley agreed with Descartes that behavior is determined solely by physical mechanisms, but he also believed that humans enjoy an intelligent life. Arguments for Epiphenomenalism