Mutually collaborative nature of new ideas
Coworking is a style of work that involves a shared working environment, often an office , and independent activity. Unlike in a typical office environment, those coworking are usually not employed by the same organization. [ 1 ] Typically it is attractive to work-at-home professionals, independent contractors, or people who travel frequently who end up working in relative isolation. [ 2 ] Coworking is also the social gathering of a group of people who are still working independently, but who share values, [ 3 ] and who are interested in the synergy that can happen from working with like-minded talented people in the same space. [ 4 ] [ 5 ] Coworking offers a solution to the problem of isolation that many freelancers experience while working at home, while at the same time letting them escape the distractions of home. [ 6 ] [ 7 ]
Peer-to-peer ( P2P ) is not restricted to technology, but covers every social process with a peer-to-peer dynamic, whether these peers are humans or computers. Peer-to-peer as a term originated from the popular concept of P2P distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers. This application structure was popularized by file sharing systems like Napster , the first of its kind in the late 1990s.
One of the most visible approaches to peer learning comes out of cognitive psychology , and is applied within a "mainstream" educational framework: "Peer learning is an educational practice in which students interact with other students to attain educational goals." [ 1 ] In this context, it can be compared to the practices that go by the name cooperative learning . However, other contemporary views on peer learning relax the constraints, and position peer or peer-to-peer learning as a mode of "learning for everyone, by everyone, about almost anything." [ 2 ] Whether it takes place in a formal or informal learning context, peer learning manifests aspects of self-organization that are mostly absent from pedagogical models of teaching and learning.
Georgism (also called Geoism or Geonomics ) is an economic philosophy and ideology which holds that people own what they create, but that things found in nature, most importantly land , belong equally to all. [ 1 ] The Georgist philosophy is based on the writings of the economist Henry George (1839–1897), and is usually associated with the idea of a single tax on the value of land. Georgists argue that a tax on land value is economically efficient , fair , and equitable ; and that it can generate sufficient revenue so that other taxes (e.g. taxes on profits, sales or income), which are less fair and efficient, can be reduced or eliminated.
A free software license is a software license which grants recipients extensive rights to modify and redistribute , which would otherwise be prohibited by copyright law. Free software licenses might prohibit certain use of the work or even force the recipients to comply to other terms.
A sign in a pub in Granada notifies customers that the music they are listening to is freely distributable under a Creative Commons license. Creative Commons ( CC ) is a non-profit organization headquartered in Mountain View, California , United States devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share. [ 1 ] The organization has released several copyright - licenses known as Creative Commons licenses free of charge to the public. These licenses allow creators to communicate which rights they reserve, and which rights they waive for the benefit of recipients or other creators. An easy to understand one-page explanation of rights, with associated visual symbols, explains the specifics of each Creative Commons license. Creative Commons licenses do not replace copyright, but are based upon it.
Copyleft symbol Copyleft (a play on the word copyright ) is the practice of using copyright law to offer the right to distribute copies and modified versions of a work and requiring that the same rights be preserved in modified versions of the work. In other words, copyleft is a general method for making a program (or other work) free ( libre ), and requiring all modified and extended versions of the program to be free as well. [ 1 ] Here. 'free' does not necessarily mean free of charge ( gratis ), but free as in freely available to be modified.
The open patent movement seeks to build a portfolio of patented inventions that can freely be distributed under a copyleft -like license. [ 1 ] These works could be used as is, or improved, in which case the patent improvement would have to be re-licensed to the institution that holds the original patent, and from which the original work was licensed. This frees all users who have accepted the license from the threat of lawsuits for patent infringement , in exchange for their surrendering the right to build up new patents of their own (in the specific domain for which the original license applies). [ citation needed ]
Works in the public domain are those whose intellectual property rights have expired, [ 1 ] been forfeited, [ 2 ] or are inapplicable. Examples include the works of Shakespeare and Beethoven , The King James Bible , most of the early silent films , the formulae of Newtonian physics , and the patents on powered flight . [ 1 ] The term is not normally applied to situations when the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or with permission. In informal usage, the public domain consists of works that are publicly available; while according to the formal definition it consists of works that are unavailable for private ownership or are available for public use. [ 2 ] As rights are country-based and vary, a work may be subject to rights in one country and not in another.
Transparency is a general quality.
Crowdsourcing is the practice of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people, and especially from an online community, rather than from traditional employees or suppliers. Often used to subdivide tedious work or to fund-raise startup companies and charities, this process can occur both online and offline. [ 1 ] The general concept is to combine the efforts of crowds of volunteers or part-time workers, where each one could contribute a small portion, which adds into a relatively large or significant result. Crowdsourcing is different from an ordinary outsourcing since it is a task or problem that is outsourced to an undefined public rather than to a specific, named group.
Co-creation is a form of marketing strategy or business strategy that emphasizes the generation and ongoing realization of mutual firm-customer value. It views markets as forums for firms and active customers to share, combine and renew each other's resources and capabilities to create value through new forms of interaction, service and learning mechanisms.
In production and development, open source is a philosophy , or pragmatic methodology that promotes free redistribution and access to an end product's design and implementation details [ citation needed ] . Before the phrase open source became widely adopted, developers and producers used a variety of terms for the concept; open source gained hold with the rise of the Internet , and the attendant need for massive retooling of the computing source code . [ 1 ] Opening the source code enabled a self-enhancing diversity of production models, communication paths, and interactive communities. [ 2 ] The open-source software movement arose to clarify the environment that the new copyright , licensing , domain , and consumer issues created. [ citation needed ] Generally, open source refers to a program in which the source code is available to the general public for use and/or modification from its original design.
Commons refers to the cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth. These resources are held in common, not owned privately. [ 1 ] The resources held in common can include everything from natural resources and common land to software . [ 2 ] The commons contains public property and private property , over which people have certain traditional rights. When commonly held property is transformed into private property this process alternatively is termed " enclosure " or more commonly, "privatization."
Open knowledge is a set of principles and methodologies related to the production and distribution of knowledge works in an open manner.