Everything Open and Free. Coworking. Coworking is a style of work that involves a shared working environment, often an office, and independent activity.
Social peer-to-peer processes. Social peer-to-peer processes are interactions with a peer-to-peer dynamic, whether these peers are humans or computers.
Peer-to-peer (P2P) is a term that originated from the popular concept of the P2P distributed computer application architecture which partitions tasks or workloads between peers. This application structure was popularized by file sharing systems like Napster, the first of its kind in the late 1990s. The concept has inspired new structures and philosophies in many areas of human interaction. P2P human dynamic affords a critical look at current authoritarian and centralized social structures. Peer learning. One of the most visible approaches to peer learning comes out of cognitive psychology, and is applied within a "mainstream" educational framework: "Peer learning is an educational practice in which students interact with other students to attain educational goals.
" In this context, it can be compared to the practices that go by the name cooperative learning. However, other contemporary views on peer learning relax the constraints, and position peer or peer-to-peer learning as a mode of "learning for everyone, by everyone, about almost anything. " Whether it takes place in a formal or informal learning context, peer learning manifests aspects of self-organization that are mostly absent from pedagogical models of teaching and learning. Research on peer learning often takes place through participant observation, and may itself be peer produced. Connections with Constructivism The three distinguishing features of constructivist theory are claims that: Guilmette cites Anne K. Georgism. Georgist ideas were popular and influential in the earlier part of the 20th century. Political parties, institutions and communities were founded based on Georgist principles during that time.
Early followers of George's philosophy called themselves Single Taxers, associated with the idea raising public revenue exclusively from land and privileges, but the term is considered a misnomer because Georgists do not consider their proposals to be true taxes and they usually support multiple funding mechanisms. In classical and Georgist economics, the term 'land' is defined as all locations, natural opportunities, resources, physical forces, and government privileges over economic domains, which is closely related to the concept of commons. Georgism was coined later, and some prefer the term geoism or geonomics to distinguish their beliefs from those of Henry George. instead. Main tenets In Progress and Poverty George argued: "We must make land common property.
Richard T. Free software licence. A free software licence is a notice that grants the recipient of a piece of software extensive rights to modify and redistribute that software.
These actions are usually prohibited by copyright law, but the rights-holder (usually the author) of a piece of software can remove these restrictions by accompanying the software with a software license which grants the recipient these rights. Software using such a licence is free software as conferred by the copyright holder. Some free software licenses include "copyleft" provisions which require all future versions to also be distributed with these freedoms. Other, "permissive", free software licenses are usually just a few lines containing the grant of rights and a disclaimer of warranty, thus also allowing distributors to add restrictions for further recipients.
The most widely used free software license is the GNU General Public License. Creative Commons. Creative Commons (CC) is a non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share. The organization has released several copyright-licenses known as Creative Commons licenses free of charge to the public.
These licenses allow creators to communicate which rights they reserve, and which rights they waive for the benefit of recipients or other creators. An easy-to-understand one-page explanation of rights, with associated visual symbols, explains the specifics of each Creative Commons license. Creative Commons licenses do not replace copyright, but are based upon it. They replace individual negotiations for specific rights between copyright owner (licensor) and licensee, which are necessary under an "all rights reserved" copyright management, with a "some rights reserved" management employing standardized licenses for re-use cases where no commercial compensation is sought by the copyright owner. Dr. Copyleft. Copyleft symbol Copyleft (a play on the word copyright) is the practice of using copyright law to offer the right to distribute copies and modified versions of a work and requiring that the same rights be preserved in modified versions of the work.
Open patent. The open patent movement seeks to build a portfolio of patented inventions that can freely be distributed under a copyleft-like license. These works could be used as is, or improved, in which case the patent improvement would have to be re-licensed to the institution that holds the original patent, and from which the original work was licensed.
This frees all users who have accepted the license from the threat of lawsuits for patent infringement, in exchange for their surrendering the right to build up new patents of their own (in the specific domain for which the original license applies).  Critics[specify] question whether the promoters of truly 'open' and mandatory improvement licensing, having spent most of their lives opposed to software patents, can actually attract donors of patents, or would actually participate in a process that they claim to despise. On October 12, 2001 the Free Software Foundation and Finite State Machine Labs Inc. Public domain. Works in the public domain are those whose intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, or are inapplicable.
Transparency (social) Transparency is a general quality.
It can be defined simply as "the perceived quality of intentionally shared information from a sender". In social enterprises, it is influenced by the set of policies, practices and procedures that allow citizens to have accessibility, usability, utility, understandability, informativeness and auditability of information held by centers of authority. Transparency has been, for long, a general requirement for democratic societies. The right to be informed and to have access to the information has been an important issue on modern societies. Transparency in organizations is often discussed in the context of ethics and the value of truth. Transparency is often analyzed as the quality of information the organization shares with its stakeholders. Among other things, stakeholders carry an interest in transparency to disentangle whether the organization's activities are consistent with social interests or otherwise ethical.
Crowdsourcing. Crowdsourcing is the process of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people, and especially from an online community, rather than from traditional employees or suppliers. While this definition from Merriam Webster is valid, a more specific definition is heavily debated. The process of crowdsourcing is often used to subdivide tedious work and has occurred successfully offline−see the examples below.
It combines the efforts of numerous self-identified volunteers or part-time workers, where each contributor of their own initiative adds a small portion to the greater result. Co-creation. Co-creation is a form of marketing strategy or business strategy that emphasizes the generation and ongoing realization of mutual firm-customer value. It views markets as forums for firms and active customers to share, combine and renew each other's resources and capabilities to create value through new forms of interaction, service and learning mechanisms. It differs from the traditional active firm – passive consumer market construct of the past. Co-created value arises in the form of personalised, unique experiences for the customer (value-in-use) and ongoing revenue, learning and enhanced market performance drivers for the firm (loyalty, relationships, customer word of mouth).
Scholars C.K. From co-production to co-creation In their review of the literature on "customer participation in production", Neeli Bendapudi and Robert P. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, scholars were mostly concerned with productivity gains through passing on tasks from the firm to the consumer. Open source. Commons. Commons refers to the cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth. These resources are held in common, not owned privately.[dead link] The resources held in common can include everything from natural resources and common land to software. The commons contains public property and private property, over which people have certain traditional rights. When commonly held property is transformed into private property this process alternatively is termed "enclosure" or more commonly, "privatization.
" A person who has a right in, or over, common land jointly with another or others is called a commoner. Open knowledge. Open knowledge is knowledge that one is free to use, reuse, and redistribute it without legal, social or technological restriction. Open knowledge is a set of principles and methodologies related to the production and distribution of knowledge works in an open manner. Knowledge is interpreted broadly to include data, content and general information. History Similarly to other 'open' concepts such as open data and open content, though the term is rather new, the concept is old. Open content. Open access (disambiguation) Open data. An introductory overview of Linked Open Data in the context of cultural institutions.