The Moral Brain. There Is No Joy like Malicious Joy: Schadenfreude in Young Children. Human emotions are strongly shaped by the tendency to compare the relative state of oneself to others.
Although social comparison based emotions such as jealousy and schadenfreude (pleasure in the other misfortune) are important social emotions, little is known about their developmental origins. To examine if schadenfreude develops as a response to inequity aversion, we assessed the reactions of children to the termination of unequal and equal triadic situations. We demonstrate that children as early as 24 months show signs of schadenfreude following the termination of an unequal situation. When David Beats Goliath: The Advantage of Large Size in Interspecific Aggressive Contests Declines over Evolutionary Time. Body size has long been recognized to play a key role in shaping species interactions.
For example, while small species thrive in a diversity of environments, they typically lose aggressive contests for resources with larger species. However, numerous examples exist of smaller species dominating larger species during aggressive interactions, suggesting that the evolution of traits can allow species to overcome the competitive disadvantage of small size. If these traits accumulate as lineages diverge, then the advantage of large size in interspecific aggressive interactions should decline with increased evolutionary distance. We tested this hypothesis using data on the outcomes of 23,362 aggressive interactions among 246 bird species pairs involving vultures at carcasses, hummingbirds at nectar sources, and antbirds and woodcreepers at army ant swarms. Evolutionary developmental biology. Advertisement advanced search Browse Subject Areas:
There Is No Joy like Malicious Joy: Schadenfreude in Young Children. Modifications to the Aesop's Fable Paradigm Change New Caledonian Crow Performances. While humans are able to understand much about causality, it is unclear to what extent non-human animals can do the same.
The Aesop's Fable paradigm requires an animal to drop stones into a water-filled tube to bring a floating food reward within reach. Rook, Eurasian jay, and New Caledonian crow performances are similar to those of children under seven years of age when solving this task. However, we know very little about the cognition underpinning these birds' performances. Here, we address several limitations of previous Aesop's Fable studies to gain insight into the causal cognition of New Caledonian crows. Gorilla Reunion: Damian Aspinall's Extraordinary Gorilla Encounter on Gorilla School. Christian the lion.
A Lion Called Christian (Full Documentary) Great ape language. Research into great ape language has involved teaching chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans to communicate with human beings and with each other using sign language, physical tokens, and lexigrams; see Yerkish.
Some primatologists argue that the primates' use of these tools indicates their ability to use "language", although this is not consistent with some definitions of that term. Questions in animal language research Animal language research attempts to answer the following questions: What problems can animals solve without language, and can they solve them better after they have received language training?
Puppet and Puff! (Cat loves Bearded Dragon) Animal Clip Of The Week: Smart Bird Uses Bread As Fishing Bait! Welcome - The Bonobo Connection. 14 Stories That Prove Animals Have Souls. Koko Responds to a Sad Movie. Pyschology Tests & Surveys. Amazon rainforest grew after climate change 2,000 years ago: study. By Alister Doyle OSLO (Reuters) - Swathes of the Amazon may have been grassland until a natural shift to a wetter climate about 2,000 years ago let the rainforests form, according to a study that challenges common belief that the world’s biggest tropical forest is far older.
The arrival of European diseases after Columbus crossed the Atlantic in 1492 may also have hastened the growth of forests by killing indigenous people farming the region, the scientists wrote in the U.S. journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). Scientists discover that eyes really are 'the window to the soul' Last updated at 10:27 19 February 2007 The eyes really are a window to the soul, according to scientists.
Patterns in the iris can give an indication of whether we are warm and trusting or neurotic and impulsive, research has found. More here... Orangutans plan their future route and communicate it to others. Male orangutans plan their travel route up to one day in advance and communicate it to other members of their species.
In order to attract females and repel male rivals, they call in the direction in which they are going to travel. Anthropologists at the University of Zurich have found that not only captive, but also wild-living orangutans make use of their planning ability. For a long time it was thought that only humans had the ability to anticipate future actions, whereas animals are caught in the here and now. Insular cortex. In each hemisphere of the mammalian brain the insular cortex (often called insula, insulary cortex or insular lobe) is a portion of the cerebral cortex folded deep within the lateral sulcus (the fissure separating the temporal lobe from the parietal and frontal lobes).
The insulae are believed to be involved in consciousness and play a role in diverse functions usually linked to emotion or the regulation of the body's homeostasis. These functions include perception, motor control, self-awareness, cognitive functioning, and interpersonal experience. In relation to these, it is involved in psychopathology. Structure Mammal Group Pubs. Ladevèze S, Asher RJ , Sanchez-Villagra MR. 2008.
Petrosal anatomy in the fossil mammal Necrolestes : evidence for metatherian affinities and comparisons with the extant marsupial mole. J Anatomy 213:686-697. Asher RJ , Lehmann T . 2008. Dental eruption in afrotherian mammals. Home Page: Daniel E. Lieberman - Professor of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University. The human body below the neck is also unusual in several respects related to locomotion.
I am especially interested in four questions: 1. When, how and why early hominins became bipeds? In collaboration with other researchers, I study early hominins such as Sahelanthropus and Australopithecus to understand how and why these hominins became bipeds, how they walked, ran and climbed, and how the evolution of human locomotion transformed the human body. 2. 10 Tribes That Avoided Modern Civilization. Humans There are said to be as many as one hundred “uncontacted tribes” still living in some of the most isolated regions of the world.
The members of these tribes, who have maintained traditions long left behind by the rest of the world, provide a wealth of information for anthropologists seeking to understand the way cultures have developed over the centuries. The Surma tribe of Ethiopia avoided all Western contact for years. Though they were well-known by Westerners for their giant lip plugs, they wanted nothing to do with any sort of government. The True Story Of A Man-Eating Tiger's 'Vengeance' Göbekli Tepe. The function of the structures is not yet clear. The most common opinion, shared by excavator Klaus Schmidt, is that they are early neolithic sanctuaries. Discovery The site was first noted in a survey conducted by Istanbul University and the University of Chicago in 1963. Tit-for-tat no more: new insights into the origin and evolution of cooperation. The Prisoner’s Dilemma (PD) is the paradigmatic scientific model to understand human cooperation.
You would think that after several decennia of analyzing this deceivingly simple game, nothing new can be learned. Not quite. This new paper discovers a whole new class of strategies that provide a unilateral advantage to the players using them in playing the repeated version of the game. In effect, using these strategies one can force the opponent to any score one desires. Reinforcement. Diagram of operant conditioning Although in many cases a reinforcing stimulus is a rewarding stimulus which is "valued" or "liked" by the individual (e.g., money received from a slot machine, the taste of the treat, the euphoria produced by an addictive drug), this is not a requirement. Indeed, reinforcement does not even require an individual to consciously perceive an effect elicited by the stimulus. Furthermore, stimuli that are "rewarding" or "liked" are not always reinforcing: if an individual eats at a fast food restaurant (response) and likes the taste of the food (stimulus), but believes it is bad for their health, they may not eat it again and thus it was not reinforcing in that condition.
Why do some people blink more than others? - The Naked Scientists August 2008. Daniel Wolpert: The real reason for brains. Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey (Part 1 of 13) Matthew White Ridley, 5th Viscount Ridley. Kindness and Sexual Behaviours in Bonobos. Chimpanzee. Gorillas... 98.6% Human. 10 Amazing Gorilla Facts You May Not Know. Kompetensi personal « cefe indonesia. Frans de Waal: Moral behavior in animals. Speciation. A&[Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] Morality Quiz/Test your Morals, Values & Ethics - Your Morals.Org.
Sports Psychology Videos by Peak Performance Sports. Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control - Chapter 1. Milgram experiment. Lack of Self-Confidence. Power (philosophy) Reciprocal determinism. Self-efficacy. Top 10 Things That Determine Happiness. Anti Joke - Funny Anti Jokes.