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Pali Language Study Aids. Introduction to Pali, by A.K. Warder London: Pali Text Society, 1963; rev. 1991. 464pp., with exercises. Available from Pariyatti. Companion audio CD also available. Known popularly as "Warder," this is the standard Pali textbook used today. It is systematic and thorough, ideally suited to those with some prior familiarity with basic linguistic concepts (case, declension, gender, etc.) or to the motivated newcomer. The companion CD is well worth purchasing, as it gives the student a good idea of what "real" spoken Pali should sound like.

Although each chapter contains numerous exercises or passages for reading and translation, the latest edition contains answers to only the first seven exercises. "Answer Key to Warder's Introduction to Pali" (John Kelly) covers the Pali-to-English, English-to-Pali, and "passages for reading" exercises, in both literal and fluent translations, for chapters 7-21. Pali Primer, by Lily de Silva Igatpuri, India: Vipassana Research Institute, 1994. 154pp. Glagolitic alphabet. The Glagolitic alphabet /ˌɡlæɡɵˈlɪtɨk/, also known as Glagolitsa, is the oldest known Slavic alphabet, that was created in the 9th century by Saint Cyril, a Byzantine monk from Thessaloniki.

Cyril based glagolitic alphabet on the language of the Macedonian Slavs from the Thessaloniki region. Name[edit] The name was not coined until many centuries after its creation, and comes from the Old Church Slavonic glagolъ "utterance" (also the origin of the Slavic name for the letter G). The verb glagoliti means "to speak". It has been conjectured that the name glagolitsa developed in Croatia around the 14th century and was derived from the word glagolity, applied to adherents of the liturgy in Slavonic.[1] In Old Church Slavonic the name is , Кѷрїлловица (kyrillovitsa).

Origins of the Glagolitic characters[edit] Glagolitic letters were also used as numbers, similarly to Cyrillic numerals. History[edit] The Baška tablet, found in the 19th century on Krk, was dated to the year 1100. Characteristics[edit] Worldmapper: The world as you've never seen it before. This map uses data from 'Ethnologue: Languages of the World', and shows the number of languages considered indigenous to each country that are still spoken there. Due to issues of language identification (see technical notes), it is possible to dispute the data used here, and a review of Ethnologue by Campbell and Grondona (2008) does just that; they claim "... the number of indigenous ('living') languages of different countries is inflated ...

". However, the map presents a good picture of linguistic diversity. Papua New Guinea has nearly 10% (820) of the world's indigenous living languages, so that there are only an average of 7000 speakers per language living there. Indonesia (737), Nigeria (510), and India (415) also have a large number of native languages. At the other end of the scale, Belarus, Maldives, DPR Korea and Holy See each have only one indigenous living language. Territory size shows the proportion of the world's Indigenous living languages that are spoken there.

Lexicity. Living Languages. Living Languages. Textes latins et grecs. INUKTITUT. Futharken. Language Etymology. Lingua Franca. संस्कृतम् Every language evolved from 'single prehistoric mother tongue first spoken in Africa' By David Derbyshire Updated: 00:25 GMT, 17 April 2011 500 languages traced back to Stone Age dialectThe further away from Africa a language is spoken, the fewer distinct sounds it hasEnglish has around 46 sounds, while the San bushmen of South Africa use a staggering 200Study finds speech evolved 'at least 100,000 years ago' Every language in the world - from English to Mandarin - evolved from a prehistoric 'mother tongue' first spoken in Africa tens of thousands of years ago, a new study reveals. After analysing more than 500 languages, Dr Quentin Atkinson found compelling evidence that they can be traced back to a long-forgotten dialect spoken by our Stone Age ancestors.

The findings don't just pinpoint the origin of language to Africa - they also show that speech evolved at least 100,000 years ago, far earlier than previously thought. Enlarge Scientists have found that every language can be traced back to a long-forgotten dialect spoken by our Stone Age ancestors in Africa. Indo-European Languages Originated in Anatolia, Biologists Say. The family includes English and most other European languages, as well as Persian, Hindi and many others. Despite the importance of the languages, specialists have long disagreed about their origin. Linguists believe that the first speakers of the mother tongue, known as proto-Indo-European, were chariot-driving pastoralists who burst out of their homeland on the steppes above the Black Sea about 4,000 years ago and conquered Europe and Asia.

A rival theory holds that, to the contrary, the first Indo-European speakers were peaceable farmers in Anatolia, now Turkey, about 9,000 years ago, who disseminated their language by the hoe, not the sword. The new entrant to the debate is an evolutionary biologist, Quentin Atkinson of the University of Auckland in New Zealand. He and colleagues have taken the existing vocabulary and geographical range of 103 Indo-European languages and computationally walked them back in time and place to their statistically most likely origin. Dr. Dr. Telling Tales in Proto-Indo-European. (iStockphoto) By the 19th century, linguists knew that all modern Indo-European languages descended from a single tongue. Called Proto-Indo-European, or PIE, it was spoken by a people who lived from roughly 4500 to 2500 B.C., and left no written texts. The question became, what did PIE sound like? In 1868, German linguist August Schleicher used reconstructed Proto-Indo-European vocabulary to create a fable in order to hear some approximation of PIE.

Called “The Sheep and the Horses,” and also known today as Schleicher’s Fable, the short parable tells the story of a shorn sheep who encounters a group of unpleasant horses. As linguists have continued to discover more about PIE, this sonic experiment continues and the fable is periodically updated to reflect the most current understanding of how this extinct language would have sounded when it was spoken some six thousand years ago. Schleicher originally rendered the fable like this: Avis akvāsas ka Here is the fable in English translation:

Runes. The origins of Runes The middle-eastern biblical description of the phonic alphabet's (Phoenecian root) division into the many spoken language-branches of the Semitic middle-eastern language family-tree describes it as having originally occured shortly after the world-flood that destroyed Atlantis (called, in Genesis, the city of Enoch), at the beginning of the Babylonian Empire from the unification of northern Akkad and southern Sumer between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. In Genesis we are told of the building of the Tower of Babel, and of the subsequent "confusion of the tongues. " This mythology establishes the division of the alphabet into languages to the east of Babylon, with the 50 letters of Indus Sanskrit, and to the west with the 27 "monoliteral" Hieroglyphics of Egypt as having derived from the 36 letters of pre-Babylonian "Ugaritic" cuneiform, the earliest known ante-deluvial alphabets known of including "linear-A" and "-B.

" the 18 Armanic Runes of Guido von List -ben. ELICITING SOUNDS /r/ Good Morning SLPs! This will mark the final entry on our series Eliciting Sounds. We are going to talk about /r/ which has been labeled by many as the "hardest" sound to teach. There are many suggested techniques to try so keep in mine these two things: 1. go with the strategy that you are most comfortable and confident and 2. keep trying different strategies until you find one that works for the kid sitting in front of you. Just because it worked with the last kid does not mean it will work with this one! Now with that in mind here are our tips. TIP #1 Visual Verbal Label I’ve heard the R sound labeled as many different and creative things. TIP #2 Shape from /i/ (long E) Have the child produce /i/ several times until s/he can grasp the concept that the tongue is wide and touching the sides of the upper teeth midway back in his mouth.

TIP #3 Shape from /j/ (Y sound) This utilizes the same basic approach as for /i/. TIP #4 Manually Move the Tongue Back TIP #5 Cue with WIDE, UP, and BACK. Magazine: Language. Evolution of Language Takes Unexpected Turn | Wired Science. It’s widely thought that human language evolved in universally similar ways, following trajectories common across place and culture, and possibly reflecting common linguistic structures in our brains. But a massive, millennium-spanning analysis of humanity’s major language families suggests otherwise.

Instead, language seems to have evolved along varied, complicated paths, guided less by neurological settings than cultural circumstance. If our minds do shape the evolution of language, it’s likely at levels deeper and more nuanced than many researchers anticipated. “It’s terribly important to understand human cognition, and how the human mind is put together,” said Michael Dunn, an evolutionary linguist at Germany’s Max Planck Institute and co-author of the new study, published April 14 in Nature. The findings “do not support simple ideas of the mind as a computer, with a language processor plugged in. They support much-more complex ideas of how language arises.” See Also: Links. I must apologize for the "ancientness" of the links on this page. I've pruned out dead links, but I haven't surfed very much for new ones.

Hopefully I will get some quality time to find good links to put on here. Disclaimer: I, Lawrence Lo, the author of Ancient Scripts, do not hold any responsibility or creative control over the contents of the following sites. They solely express the opinions of their respective authors, not mine. They are provided as links because they may present information on writing systems. I do not verify the truthfulness of their contents. If you have any interesting sites or know of any please email their web addresses to me.

Writing Systems Fonts Historical Linguistics Archaeology. Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents. Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents. India: Languages and Scripts. Bengali. Bengali is a Nagari-derived script that appeared in eastern South Asia around the 11th century CE. It is still currently used in Bangladesh, as well as the state of West Bengal in India (hence the script's name) on the eastern part of India. The old Bengali script (11th century CE) is also the parent to many other scripts of eastern India, such as Oriya, Manipuri, and Maithili. The Bengali script is used to writer languages in eastern India such as Bengali, Assamese, and Manipuri. Once again, like other South Asian writing systems, vowels following a consonant other than the default /a/ is written with extra strokes, as in the following example: Related Links Languages and Scripts of India.

Aramaic language. This article is about the Semitic language now spoken by smaller numbers of people in scattered locations. For the Semitic language spoken in Ethiopia, see Amharic. Aramaic (Arāmāyā, Classical Syriac: ܐܪܡܝܐ) is a family of languages or dialects belonging to the Semitic family. More specifically, it is part of the Northwest Semitic subfamily, which also includes Canaanite languages such as Hebrew and Phoenician. The Aramaic script was widely adopted for other languages and is ancestral to both the Arabic and modern Hebrew alphabets. During its approximately 3000 years of written history,[2] Aramaic has served variously as a language of administration of empires and as a language of divine worship.

Aramaic's long history and diverse and widespread use has led to the development of many divergent varieties, which are sometimes considered dialects, though they are distinct enough that they are sometimes considered languages. Etymology[edit] Geographic distribution[edit] Writing system[edit] Akkadian language. The mutual influence between Sumerian and Akkadian had led scholars to describe the languages as a sprachbund.[3] Akkadian proper names were first attested in Sumerian texts from ca. the late 29th century BC.[4] From the second half of the third millennium BC (ca. 2500 BC), texts fully written in Akkadian begin to appear. Hundreds of thousands of texts and text fragments have been excavated to date, covering a vast textual tradition of mythological narrative, legal texts, scientific works, correspondence, political and military events, and many other examples. By the second millennium BC, two variant forms of the language were in use in Assyria and Babylonia, known as Assyrian and Babylonian respectively.

Akkadian had been for centuries the lingua franca in Mesopotamia and the Ancient Near East. However, it began to decline around the 8th century BC, being marginalized by Aramaic during the Neo Assyrian Empire. Classification[edit] History and writing[edit] Writing[edit] Development[edit] Namaste - The Yogic Greeting - Exotic India Art. Unilingua-instantly. Unilingua; langue universelle auxiliaire. (Book, 1965) 22 Maps That Show The Deepest Linguistic Conflicts In America.

The Evolution of the English Alphabet Chart [In Progress] – Yehweh Not Yahweh. The Evolution of the English Alphabet Chart shows how over the last 4000 years the English alphabet along with at least 13 other major alphabets has evolved (or rather mutated) out of the Ancient Hebrew alphabet. The harmony in graphology (shape) of the letters of the alphabets is strikingly similar from alphabet to alphabet. This proves the Jews are not the only ISHaRaALites. Also it reveals that the the key to unlocking the the Name of the Creator is through the two-houseidentity of the (bloodline) ISHaRaALItes. I compiled it using by using many different alphabetological and liguistic, webpages and books.Some of the charts from these sources are shown further down the page; others I have yet to reference. To view image—left click on it, and then right click and your zoom tool should appear, or you can right click and then save as to your PC. a) Y—this has been moved from the hand and arm pictograph (ID [Modern Jewish Hebrew (MJH) yod]) row to the tent peg (UU [MJH waw]) pictograph row.

Middle English Dictionary: Introduction. Veritas in Latin Middle Ages from Augustine to Paul of Venice. "Almost everyone knows that it was Aristotle who proposed the classical (or correspondence) theory of truth for the first time. However, the fact that his writings contain different and often mutually non-equivalent statements on truth is less recognized. This is a sample of Aristotelian explanations concerning the concept of truth (.. (3) To say of what is that it is not, or of what is not that it is, is false, while to say of what is that it is, and of what is not that it is not, is true (Metaphysics 1011 b). (4) The fact of the being of a man carries with it the truth of the proposition that he is; and the implication is reciprocal: for if a man is, the proposition wherein we allege that he is, is true, and conversely, if the proposition wherein we allege that he is true, then he is.

. (6) he who thinks the separated to be separated and the combined to be combined has the truth, while he whose thought is in a state contrary to that of the objects is in error (Metaphysics 1051 b). B. St. Latin proverbs and locutions. Fun latin. Latin phrases. English-Latin translator : One Click Search - (c) 2000-2009 Latin online. List of Germanic and Latinate equivalents in English. Latin Phrases. Englishman's Greek Concordance. Greek and latin. Aryan Language Family. How to raise a language from the dead. Ancient Language Computer Program Recreates Sound Of Dead Tongues, Scientists Say. HISTORY OF LANGUAGE. Clues to Lost Prehistoric Code Discovered in Mesopotamia. Did Stone Age cavemen talk to each other in symbols? | Science | The Observer.

Simulated Linguistic Evolution In The Laboratory. Faculty of language evolution Hauser-2002-faculty.pdf. Ancient history. Linguistic Evolution. Language Learning.