The word tellus, telluris is also a Latin common noun for "land, territory; earth," as is terra, "earth, ground". In literary uses, particularly in poetry, it may be ambiguous as to whether the goddess, a personification, or the common noun is meant. This article preserves the usage of the ancient sources regarding Tellus or Terra. Dedicatory inscription to Terra Mater fulfilling a vow (votum), 1st century AD The two words terra and tellus are thought to derive from the formulaic phrase tersa tellus, meaning "dry land". The 4th-century AD Latin commentator Servius distinguishes between tellus and terra in usage. Varro identifies Terra Mater with Ceres: Ovid distinguishes between Tellus as the locus ("site, location") of growth, and Ceres as its causa ("cause, agent"). Mater, the Latin word for "mother," is often used as an honorific for goddesses, including Vesta, who was represented as a virgin. Detail from a sarcophagus depicting a Mother Earth figure (3rd century AD)
Related: Mother-Earth Deities
• Gods of Earth and Nature
Magna DeaRhea (mythology)Rhea (or Cybele), after a marble, 1888. Then she hid Zeus in a cave on Mount Ida in Crete. According to varying versions of the story: Rhea only appears in Greek art from the fourth century BC, when her iconography draws on that of Cybele; the two therefore, often are indistinguishable; both can be shown on a throne flanked by lions, riding a lion, or on a chariot drawn by two lions. Most often Rhea's symbol is a pair of lions, the ones that pulled her celestial chariot and were seen often, rampant, one on either side of the gateways through the walls to many cities in the ancient world. In Homer, Rhea is the mother of the gods, although not a universal mother like Cybele, the Phrygian Great Mother, with whom she was later identified.
FordicidiaIn ancient Roman religion , the was a festival of fertility, held April 15, that pertained to farming and animal husbandry . It involved the sacrifice of a pregnant cow to Tellus , or Mother Earth, in proximity to the festival of Ceres ( Cerealia ) on April 19. [ 1 ] On the Roman religious calendar , the month of April was in general preoccupied with deities who were female or ambiguous in gender, opening with the Feast of Venus on the Kalends . [ 2 ] Several other festivals pertaining to farm life were held in April: the Parilia , or feast of shepherds, on April 21; the Robigalia on April 25, to protect crops from blight; [ 3 ] and the Vinalia , or one of the two wine festivals on the calendar, [ 4 ] at the end of the month. [ edit ] Sacrifice and ritual The late Republican scholar Varro explains the name of the festival as follows: , the high priestess of Vesta [ edit ] Meaning [ edit ] Comparison [ edit ] References Mary Beard , J.A. William Warde Fowler , (London, 1908), pp. 66–67. H.H.
Slavic mythologyMany generations of Slavic artists were inspired by their national folklore: Ilya Yefimovich Repin, Sadko in the Underwater Kingdom (1876) Slavic mythology is the mythological aspect of the polytheistic religion that was practised by the Slavs before Christianisation. The religion possesses many common traits with other religions descended from the Proto-Indo-European religion. Old Slavic religion evolved over more than a thousand years and some parts of it were from neolithic or possibly even mesolithic times. The Earth was worshipped as Mat Zemlya and there were no temples. Modern wooden statue of Perun, the god of thunder and lightning, Ruthenia Sources of information Unlike Greek, Indian or Egyptian mythology, there are no first-hand records for the study of Slavic mythology. Written sources Artistic representation of Saxo Grammaticus Though considered authentic by some Slavic neopagans, the Book of Veles appears to be a forgery from the first half of the twentieth century.
Terra AustralisTerra Australis (meaning "South Land") is one of the names given to a hypothetical continent which appeared on European maps between the 15th and 18th centuries. Although the landmass was drawn onto maps, Terra Australis was not based on any actual surveying of such a landmass but rather based on the hypothesis that continents in the Northern Hemisphere should be balanced by land in the south. In the early 1800s, British explorer Matthew Flinders had popularized the naming of Australia after Terra Australis, giving his rationale that there was "no probability" of finding any significant land mass anywhere more south than Australia. The continent that would come to be named Antarctica would be explored decades after Flinders' 1814 book on Australia, which he had titled A Voyage to Terra Australis, and after his naming switch had gained popularity. Gerard de Jode, Universi Orbis seu Terreni Globi, 1578. Other names Origins Terre Australle, 1583.
DemeterIn ancient Greek religion and myth, Demeter (/diˈmiːtər/; Attic: Δημήτηρ Dēmḗtēr; Doric: Δαμάτηρ Dāmā́tēr) is the goddess of the harvest, who presided over grains and the fertility of the earth. Her cult titles include Sito (Σιτώ), "she of the Grain", as the giver of food or grain and Thesmophoros (θεσμός, thesmos: divine order, unwritten law; "phoros": bringer, bearer), "Law-Bringer," as a mark of the civilized existence of agricultural society. Etymology Demeter's character as mother-goddess is identified in the second element of her name meter (μήτηρ) derived from Proto-Indo-European *méh₂tēr (mother). In antiquity, different explanations were already proffered for the first element of her name. An alternative, Proto-Indo-European etymology comes through Potnia and Despoina; where Des- represents a derivative of PIE *dem (house, dome), and Demeter is "mother of the house" (from PIE *dems-méh₂tēr). Agricultural deity Festivals and cults Myths
Venus figurines"Venus figurines" is an umbrella term for a number of prehistoric statuettes of women portrayed with similar physical attributes from the Upper Palaeolithic, mostly found in Europe, but with finds as far east as Irkutsk Oblast, Siberia, extending their distribution to much of Eurasia, from the Pyrenees to Lake Baikal. Most of them date to the Gravettian period, but there are a number of early examples from the Aurignacian, including the Venus of Hohle Fels, discovered in 2008, carbon dated to at least 35,000 years ago, and late examples of the Magdalenian, such as the Venus of Monruz, aged about 11,000 years. These figurines were carved from soft stone (such as steatite, calcite or limestone), bone or ivory, or formed of clay and fired. The latter are among the oldest ceramics known. In total, over a hundred such figurines are known; virtually all of modest size, between 4 cm and 25 cm in height. They are some of the earliest works of prehistoric art. History of discovery Notes
SementivaeSementivae, also known as Feriae Sementivae or Sementina dies (in the country called Paganalia), was a Roman festival of sowing. It was a type of feriae conceptivae [or conceptae]. These free days were held every year, but not on certain or fixed days, the time being every year appointed by the magistrates or priests (quotannis a magistratibus vel sacerdotibus concipiuntur, Notes Jump up ^ Macrobius l. c.; Varro, On the Latin Language in 25 Books, vi. 25, etc.; Festus s. v.).Jump up ^ Varro On the Latin Language in 25 Books, vi. 26, de Re Rustica, i. 2, init.; Ovid, On the Roman Calendar, i. 658, etc.)Jump up ^ Merkel, Ovid, On the Roman Calendar, p. clv. References This entry incorporates public domain text originally from (eds.