Khatanga, Russia. Khatanga's post office The name Khatanga means "large water" in the local Evenki language. The locality is known to have existed since the 17th century. It is served by the Khatanga Airport. Khatanga is sometimes visited by Western sightseers touring the surrounding natural wilderness in Siberia. Khatanga is relatively close to the Popigai crater, an asteroid crater and geological formation located in northern Siberia. Climate Khatanga has a subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification Dfc) with short, mild summers and bitterly cold winters. References Orenburg. Geography Map of Orenburg The city is located at the confluence of the Sakmara and Ural Rivers. The highest point of the city is 154.4 meters (507 ft).  History Pedestrian bridge "Europe–Asia" over the Ural River in Orenburg The Russian Empire began plans for the expansion into Asia by construction of an eastern frontier fortress town in the southern Ural region to be named Orenburg in 1734.
Orenburg played a major role in the Pugachev rebellion (1773–1774). The famous Russian writer Alexander Pushkin visited Orenburg in 1833 during a research trip for his books The History of Pugachev and his famous novel The Captain's Daughter. Orenburg functioned as the capital of the Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (in present-day Kazakhstan) within Russia from 1920–1925. From 1938 to 1957, the city bore the name Chkalov (Чка́лов) (after the prominent test pilot Valery Chkalov). Administrative and municipal status Economy Transportation Notes Norilsk.
Geography Norilsk is the world's northernmost city with more than 100,000 inhabitants and the second largest city (after Murmansk) inside the Arctic Circle. Norilsk, Yakutsk, and Vorkuta are the only large cities in the continuous permafrost zone. It lies between Taymyrsky Dolgano-Nenetsky District to the north, and Turukhansky District to the south. History False-color satellite image of Norilsk and the surrounding area (more information) Norilsk was founded at the end of the 1920s, but the official date of founding is traditionally 1935, when Norilsk was expanded as a settlement for the Norilsk mining-metallurgic complex and became the center of the Norillag system of GULAG labor camps.
Norilsk is located between the West Siberian Plain and Central Siberian Plateau at the foot of the 1,700-meter (5,600 ft) high Putoran Mountains, on some of the largest nickel deposits on Earth. Administrative and municipal status Demographics Economy Climate Pollution Oymyakon. Oymyakon (Russian: Оймяко́н, Sakha: Өймөкөөн, Öymököön) is a rural locality (a selo) in Oymyakonsky District of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located along the Indigirka River, 30 kilometers (19 mi) northwest of Tomtor on the Kolyma Highway. Etymology It is named after the Oymyakon River, whose name reportedly comes from the Even word kheium, meaning 'unfrozen patch of water; place where fish spend the winter'. However, another source states that the Even word heyum (hэjум) (kheium may be a misspelling) means 'frozen lake'. Geography Oymyakon, population 472, is located in eastern Yakutia at an elevation of approximately 750 meters above sea level.
At the village's northernly position, day length varies from 3 hours in December to 21 hours in June. History Climate With an extreme subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification Dwd), Oymyakon is known as one of the candidates for the Northern Pole of Cold, the other being the town of Verkhoyansk. In the media Yakutsk. Yakutsk is a major port on the Lena River. It is served by the Yakutsk Airport as well as the smaller Magan Airport. It is a major supplier of diamonds. History The Turkic Sakha people, also known as the Yakuts, migrated to the area in the 13th and 14th centuries from other parts of Siberia due to the rising military power of the Mongols. Yakutsk did not grow into a city until the discovery of large reserves of gold and other minerals in the 1880s and 1890s. Administrative and municipal status Transportation Yakutsk is a destination of the Lena Highway.
A road bridge over the Lena is scheduled to be built by 2020. The bridge had originally been planned to be a dual-use railroad and road bridge so the Amur Yakutsk Mainline, the North-South railroad being extended from the South, could connect the city with the East-West Baikal Amur Mainline. Education and research M.K.Ammosov North-Eastern Federal University is situated in the city. Economy Climate Kamchatka Peninsula.
Coordinates: Kamchatka Peninsula in the far east of Russia. The pink area is the Kamchatka Krai which includes some of the mainland to the north. The Kamchatka Peninsula (Russian: полуо́стров Камча́тка, poluostrov Kamchatka) is a 1,250-kilometre (780 mi) peninsula in the Russian Far East, with an area of about 270,000 km2 (100,000 sq mi). It lies between the Pacific Ocean to the east and the Sea of Okhotsk to the west. Immediately offshore along the Pacific coast of the peninsula runs the 10,500-metre (34,400 ft) deep Kuril–Kamchatka Trench. The Kamchatka Peninsula, the Commander Islands, and Karaginsky Island constitute the Kamchatka Krai of the Russian Federation. The vast majority of the 322,079 inhabitants are Russians, but there are also about 8,743 Koryaks (2002). The Kamchatka peninsula contains the volcanoes of Kamchatka, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Kamchatka receives up to 2,700 mm (110 in) of precipitation per year. Geography Topography of the Kamchatka Peninsula. Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. Geography The city is situated on high hills and surrounded by volcanoes. In fact, the horizon cannot be seen clearly from any point in town as volcanoes and mountains are everywhere. Across Avacha Bay from the city is Russia's largest submarine base, the Rybachiy Nuclear Submarine Base, established during Soviet times and still used by the Russian Navy. The city is located 6,766 kilometers (4,204 mi) from Moscow (about nine hours by plane) and about 2,220 kilometers (1,380 mi) from Vladivostok. History The city was founded by Danish navigator Vitus Bering in the service of the Russian Navy. During the 1854–1855 Crimean War, the city was put under siege by the Anglo-French forces, but never fell.
Petropavlovsk was a great source of fish, particularly salmon, and crab meat for the Soviet Union in the 20th century. Administrative and municipal status Tourism The city has developed a tourist infrastructure. Demographics Climate Politics Gallery Vladivostok. Vladivostok (Russian: Владивосток, IPA: [vlədʲɪvɐˈstok] ( In 2012, Vladivostok hosted the 24th Summit of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum. In preparation for the event, the infrastructure of the city was renovated and improved. Two giant cable-stayed bridges were constructed in Vladivostok, namely the Zolotoy Rog Bridge over the Golden Horn Bay in the center of the city, and the Russky Bridge from the mainland to Russky Island, where the summit took place.
The latter bridge is the longest cable-stayed bridge in the world. Names The name Vladivostok loosely translates from Russian as "the ruler of the East"—a name similar to Vladikavkaz which means "the ruler of the Caucasus". Geography The city is located in the southern extremity of Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula, which is about 30 kilometers (19 mi) long and approximately 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) wide. The highest point is Mount Kholodilnik, the height of which is 257 meters (843 ft). History Politics Novosibirsk. Novosibirsk (Russian: Новосибирск, IPA: [nəvəsʲɪˈbʲirsk]) is the third most populous city in Russia after Moscow and St.
Petersburg and the most populous city in Asian Russia, with a population of 1,523,801 (2013 est.). It is the administrative center of Novosibirsk Oblast as well as of the Siberian Federal District. The city is located in the southwestern part of Siberia on the banks of the Ob River adjacent to the Ob River Valley, near the large water reservoir formed by the dam of the Novosibirsk Hydro Power Plant. and occupies an area of 502.1 square kilometers (193.9 sq mi). The city is informally known as the "Capital of Siberia".
History Novonikolayevsk in 1895 At the time of the bridge's opening, Novonikolayevsk hosted a population of 7,800 people. The Russian Civil War took a toll on the city, with wartime epidemics, especially typhus and cholera, claiming thousands of lives. On September 2, 1962, the population of Novosibirsk reached one million. Ecology Irkutsk. History Irkutsk Castle in 1735 In the early 19th century, many Russian artists, officers, and nobles were sent into exile in Siberia for their part in the Decembrist revolt against Tsar Nicholas I. Irkutsk became the major center of intellectual and social life for these exiles, and much of the city's cultural heritage comes from them; many of their wooden houses, adorned with ornate, hand-carved decorations, survive today, in stark contrast with the standard Soviet apartment blocks that surround them. Epiphany Cathedral and central Irkutsk in 1865 By the end of the 19th century, there was one exiled man for every two locals.
People of varying backgrounds, from members of the Decembrist uprising to Bolsheviks, have been in Irkutsk for many years and have greatly influenced the culture and development of the city. Irkutsk in 1918 Irkutsk was the administrative center of the short-lived East Siberian Oblast, which existed from 1936 to 1937. Epiphany Cathedral (built in 1718–1746) Omsk. Omsk (Russian: Омск, IPA: [omsk]) is a city and the administrative center of Omsk Oblast, Russia, located in southwestern Siberia 2,236 kilometers (1,389 mi) from Moscow. With a population of 1,154,116, it is Russia's second-largest city east of the Ural Mountains after Novosibirsk, and seventh by size nationally. During the Imperial era, Omsk was the seat of the Governor General of Western Siberia, and later of the Governor General of the Steppes. For a brief period during the Russian Civil War in 1918–1920, it served as the capital of the anti-Bolshevik Russian State and held the imperial gold reserves. Omsk is the administrative center of the Siberian Cossack Host.
It also serves as the see of the bishop of Omsk and Tara, as well as the administrative seat of the Imam of Siberia. Geography Omsk stretches along the banks of the north-flowing Irtysh at its confluence with the smaller Om River. History Soviet period Pushkin State Library Post-Soviet period Vorkuta. History It had its origin in one of the more notorious forced labor camps of the Gulag which was established in 1932. In 1941, Vorkuta and the labor camp system based around it were connected to the rest of the world by a prisoner-built railroad linking Konosha, Kotlas, and the camps of Inta. Town status was granted to Vorkuta November 26, 1943. It was the largest center of the Gulag camps in European Russia and served as the administrative center for a large number of smaller camps and subcamps, among them Kotlas, Pechora, and Izhma (modern Sosnogorsk).
In 1953, the town witnessed a major uprising by the camp inmates. Administrative and municipal status Economy By the early part of the 21st century many of the mines had been closed as problems with high costs of operations have plagued the mine operators. Climate Mining College in Vorkuta Vorkuta has a subarctic climate with short, cool summers accompanied by very cold and dry winters. Miscellaneous Murmansk. Central part of Murmansk History Aerial view of Murmansk, 1936 In the winter of 1917 the British North Russia Squadron under Rear Admiral Thomas Kemp was established at Murmansk. From 1918 to 1920, during the Russian Civil War, the town was occupied by the Western powers, who had been allied in World War I, and by the White Army forces. In 1934, the Murmansk Okrug Executive Committee developed a redistricting proposal, which included a plan to enlarge the city by merging the surrounding territories in the north, south, and west into Murmansk. While this plan was not confirmed by the Leningrad Oblast Executive Committee, in 1935–1937 several rural localities of Kolsky and Polyarny Districts were merged into Murmansk anyway. During World War II, Murmansk was a link to the Western world for Russia, with large quantities of goods important to the respective military efforts traded with the Allies: primarily manufactured goods and raw materials into the Soviet Union.
Tiksi. Etymology The name Tiksi means "a moorage place" in the Sakha language. Geography Tiksi is located on the shore of the Buor-Khaya Gulf of the Laptev Sea, south of the river delta of the Lena River, and serves as one of the principal ports for accessing the Laptev Sea. History View of Tiksi During the Cold War, Tiksi saw military construction projects at Tiksi North and Tiksi West airfields.
Climate Tiksi has a polar climate (Köppen ET). Economy Transportation The settlement is served by the Tiksi Airport, which was shut down by the Defense Ministry on October 1, 2012 except for helicopters. The city was connected only by helicopter flights and winter roads. The Lena River is navigable in the summer months. References Arkhangelsk. History Early history The area where Arkhangelsk is situated was known to the Vikings as Bjarmaland. Ohthere of Hålogaland told from his travels circa 890 of an area by a river and the White Sea with many buildings. This was probably the place later known as Arkhangelsk.  According to Snorri Sturluson, there was a Viking raid on this area in 1027, led by Thorir Hund.
In 1989, an unusually impressive silver treasure was found by the mouth of Dvina, right next to present-day Arkhangelsk.  It was probably buried in the beginning of the 12th century, and contained articles that may have been up to two hundred years old at that time. Most of the findings were made up by a total of 1.6 kilograms (3.5 lb) of silver, many of them coins. It is hard to place this find historically until further research is completed. Alternatively, like the Russian scientists[who?] Novgorodians arrive Norwegian-Russian conflict Overview of Arkhangelsk at night.
Saint Petersburg. Siberia. Trans-Siberian Railway. Siberia travel guide.