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Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
Portrait of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (/ˈpjɔːtər ɪˈliɪtʃ tʃɪˈkɒfski/; Russian: Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский;[a 1] tr. Pyotr Ilyich Chaykovsky; 7 May 1840 – 6 November 1893),[a 2] often anglicised as Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky /ˈpiːtər .../, was a Russian composer whose works included symphonies, concertos, operas, ballets, chamber music, and a choral setting of the Russian Orthodox Divine Liturgy. While his music has remained popular among audiences, critical opinions were initially mixed. Life[edit] Childhood[edit] The Tchaikovsky family in 1848. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky was born in Votkinsk, a small town in Vyatka Governorate (present-day Udmurtia) in the Russian Empire. Tchaikovsky had four brothers (Nikolai, Ippolit, and twins Anatoly and Modest), a sister, Alexandra and a half-sister Zinaida from his father's first marriage.[5] He was particularly close to Alexandra and the twins. Tchaikovsky took piano lessons from the age of five. Emerging composer[edit]

Antonín Dvořák Antonín Dvořák Antonín Leopold Dvořák (/ˈdvɔrʒɑːk/ DVOR-zhahk or /dɨˈvɔrʒæk/ di-VOR-zhak; Czech: [ˈantoɲiːn ˈlɛopolt ˈdvor̝aːk] ( ); September 8, 1841 – May 1, 1904) was a Czech composer. Following the nationalist example of Bedřich Smetana, Dvořák frequently employed features of the folk music of Moravia and his native Bohemia (then parts of the Austrian Empire and now constituting the Czech Republic). Dvořák's own style has been described as 'the fullest recreation of a national idiom with that of the symphonic tradition, absorbing folk influences and finding effective ways of using them'.[1] Born in Nelahozeves, Dvořák displayed his musical gifts at an early age. Biography[edit] Early years[edit] Dvořák was born in Nelahozeves, near Prague (then part of Bohemia in the Austrian Empire, now Czech Republic), the eldest son of František Dvořák (1814–1894) and his wife Anna, née Zdeňková (1820–1882).[5] František was an innkeeper, professional player of the zither, and a butcher.

Biografia de Modest Mussorgsky Modest Mussorgsky (Modest Petrovich Musorgski o Mussorgsky; Karevo, Rusia, 1839 - San Petersburgo, 1881) Compositor ruso. La escuela musical nacionalista rusa tuvo en los miembros del denominado Grupo de los Cinco a sus máximos exponentes. De ellos, el que mejor supo reflejar el alma del pueblo ruso, a pesar de las profundas carencias de su preparación técnica, fue Modest Mussorgsky. Músico de formación autodidacta, muchas de sus obras quedaron inacabadas por falta de conocimiento del oficio de compositor, pero a pesar de ello revelan un talento y una originalidad que ejercerían una profunda influencia en autores posteriores como Debussy, Ravel o Shostakovich. Modest Mussorgsky Hijo de un terrateniente, la infancia de Mussorgsky transcurrió en el medio rural, en contacto con la realidad del campesinado ruso que tan certeramente supo retratar en sus óperas. Arruinada su familia, Mussorgsky dejó el ejército para iniciar, desde 1869 hasta su muerte, una discontinua carrera como funcionario.

Nadezhda von Meck Life[edit] Childhood[edit] She was born Nadezhda Filaretovna Frolovskaya, into a family with large landholdings. From an early age her father, Filaret Frolovsky, embraced a love of music. Marriage[edit] At 16 she was married off to Karl Otto Georg von Meck, a 28-year-old engineer and son of major Otto Adam von Meck and Wilhelmine Hafferberg – a Baltic German family from Riga. As a government official, Karl von Meck's life was uneventful and his work poorly paid. Nadezhda von Meck saw things very differently. Karl finally gave in to his wife's requests and resigned. Karl died suddenly in 1873. Obsessive despot[edit] Nikolai Rubinstein. After the death of her husband, von Meck ceased all social life. By all accounts von Meck was imperious by nature, presiding over her household as a despot. She was always compulsively busy. She was probably well aware she was hard to tolerate. Personal views[edit] Nadezhda von Meck was a professed atheist. Support of the performing arts[edit] The break[edit]

The Night of Enitharmon's Joy "She is triple, according to mythology: a girl and a boy hide their heads behind her back. Her left hand lies on a book of magic; her left foot is extended. She is attended by a thistle-eating ass, the mournful owl of false wisdom, the head of a crocodile (blood-thirsty hypocrisy), and a cat-headed bat. Blake often drew on Michelangelo to create and compose his epic images, including Hecate's, according to a consensus of critics. The image may also allude to the Three Fates — the Moirai of Greek mythology and the Parcae of Roman. "Fillet of a fenny snake, In the cauldron boil and bake; Eye of newt and toe of frog, Wool of bat and tongue of dog, Adder's fork and blind-worm's sting, Lizard's leg and owlet's wing, For a charm of powerful trouble, Like a hell-broth boil and bubble." Hence, bat, owl, snake or frog would be appropriate to The Triple Hecate.[9] "Now comes the night of Enitharmon's joy! Who shall I call? That Woman, lovely Woman! Arise O Rintrah thee I call! Go! References[edit]

Giacomo Puccini Giacomo Puccini Giacomo Puccini (Italian: [ˈdʒaːkomo putˈtʃiːni]; 22 December 1858 – 29 November 1924) was an Italian composer whose operas are among the important operas played as standards.[n 1] Puccini has been called "the greatest composer of Italian opera after Verdi".[1] While his early work was rooted in traditional late-19th-century romantic Italian opera, he successfully developed his work in the realistic verismo style, of which he became one of the leading exponents. Family and education[edit] Puccini's birthplace, seen in 1984 Early career and first operas[edit] Puccini wrote an orchestral piece called the Capriccio sinfonica as a thesis composition for the Milan Conservatory. Le Villi[edit] After the premiere of the Capriccio sinfonica, Ponchielli and Puccini discussed the possibility that Puccini's next work might be an opera. Edgar[edit] Manon Lescaut[edit] Middle career[edit] Original poster for Puccini's Tosca La bohème[edit] Tosca[edit] Puccini photographed in 1908 La rondine[edit]

Giuseppe Verdi Retrato de Giuseppe Verdi por Giovanni Boldini (1886) — Galería Nacional de Arte Moderno de Roma. Sant'Agata, su residencia en Busseto. Boito y Verdi. Verdi por Giacomo Brogi. La Casa de reposo para músicos Verdi. Giuseppina Strepponi. Biografía[editar] Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi nació en Le Roncole el 10 de octubre de 1813, hijo de Carlo Giuseppe Verdi y Luigia Uttini. Se convirtió pronto en el organista de la iglesia de su pueblo y, tras establecerse en Milán, intentó entrar en el conservatorio de la ciudad, pero no lo consiguió. Se puede decir que sus primeros éxitos están relacionados con la situación política que se vivía en Italia. Siguió un período de dificultades personales, con la muerte de su primera esposa y su hija, que contrastó con la creación de sus óperas más populares y queridas; las ya mencionadas Rigoletto, La Traviata e Il Trovatore. Falleció en Milán, el 27 de enero de 1901, debido a un derrame cerebral. Óperas[editar]

The Five (composers) The Five, also known as The Mighty Handful (Russian: Могучая кучка, Moguchaya kuchka), The Balakirev Circle, and The New Russian School, refers to a circle of composers who met in Saint Petersburg, Russia, in the years 1856–1870: Mily Balakirev (the leader), César Cui, Modest Mussorgsky, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov and Alexander Borodin. The group had the aim of producing a specifically Russian kind of art music, rather than one that imitated older European music or relied on European-style conservatory training. In a sense, they were a branch of the Romantic Nationalist movement in Russia, sharing similar artistic goals with the Abramtsevo Colony and Russian Revival. In May 1867 the critic Vladimir Stasov wrote an article, Mr. Balakirev's Slavic Concert, on a concert given for visiting Slav delegations to the "All-Russian Ethnographical Exhibition" in Moscow. The name of Les Six, an even looser collection of French-speaking composers, emulates that of "The Five".

How to Use the Rule of 72 Edit Article Exponential growthEstimating exponential decayDoubling Time Chart Edited by DifuWu, Garshepp, Flickety, Daniel and 10 others The rule of 72 is a handy rule used in finance to estimate quickly the number of years it takes to double a sum of capital given an annual interest rate, or to estimate the annual interest rate it takes to double a sum of money over a given number of years. The rule states that interest percentage times the number of years it takes to double a principal amount of money is approximately equal to 72. The Rule of 72 is applicable in exponential growth (as in compound interest) or in exponential decay. Ad Steps Method 1 of 2: Exponential growth Estimating doubling time 1Let R * T = 72, where R = the rate of growth (for example, interest rate), T = doubling time (for example, time it takes to double an amount of money). 4Study these additional examples:How long does it take to double a given amount of money at a rate of 10% per annum? Estimating growth rate Tips

Francisco Tárrega Francisco de Asís Tárrega y Eixea (21 November 1852 – 15 December 1909) was a Spanish composer and classical guitarist of the Romantic period. Biography[edit] Tárrega was born on 21 November 1852, in Villarreal, Province of Castellón, Spain. It is said that Francisco's father played flamenco and several other music styles on his guitar; when his father was away working as a watchman at the Convent of San Pascual, the child would take his father's guitar and attempt to make the beautiful sounds he had heard. Francisco's nickname as a child was "Quiquet". As a child, he ran away from his nanny and fell into an irrigation channel and injured his eyes. In 1862, concert guitarist Julián Arcas, on tour in Castellón, heard the young Tárrega play and advised Tárrega's father to allow Francisco to come to Barcelona to study with him. Three years later, in 1865, he ran away again, this time to Valencia where he joined a gang of gypsies. "Danza Mora", sheet music Musical style[edit] Compositions[edit]

Gioachino Rossini Gioachino Rossini o Gioacchino (nacido como Giovacchino Antonio Rossini[1] en Pésaro, Italia, el 29 de febrero de 1792 y fallecido en París, Francia, el 13 de noviembre de 1868) fue un compositor italiano, conocido especialmente por sus óperas, particularmente por las cómicas. Su popularidad le hizo asumir el "trono" de la ópera italiana en la estética del bel canto de principios del siglo XIX, género que realza la belleza de la línea melódica vocal sin descuidar los demás aspectos musicales. Biografía[editar] Como clavecinista acompañante en teatros, Rossini fue llamado para componer una ópera breve en 1810 y, dado el éxito que logró, siguió componiendo, particularmente en Venecia y en Milán, con éxitos sonados en la mayor parte de los casos (su séptima ópera conquistó La Scala con cincuenta y tres funciones iniciales) y repentinos fracasos, pero afianzándose como el primer compositor de su tiempo, a pesar de no contar siquiera veinticinco años de edad. Su muerte[editar] Rossini

Mily Balakirev Portrait of Balakirev Mily Alexeyevich Balakirev (Russian: Милий Алексеевич Балакирев, IPA: [ˈmʲilʲɪj ɐlʲɪkˈsʲeɪvʲɪtɕ bɐˈlakʲɪrʲɪf]; 2 January 1837 [O.S. 21 December 1836] – 29 May [O.S. 16 May] 1910)[a 1] was a Russian pianist, conductor and composer known today primarily for his work promoting musical nationalism and his encouragement of more famous Russian composers, notably Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. He began his career as a pivotal figure, extending the fusion of traditional folk music and experimental classical music practices begun by composer Mikhail Glinka. In the process, Balakirev developed musical patterns that could express overt nationalistic feeling. Life[edit] Early years[edit] The Five[edit] Rimsky-Korsakov as a naval cadet, at the time he met Balakirev The deaths of Glinka in 1857 and Ulybyshev the following year left Balakirev without influential supporters. Alexander Dargomyzhsky eventually replaced Balakirev as a mentor to The Five Mature works and Prague visit[edit]