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Economy of Russia

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Russian space exploration.

Science and technology in Russia

Energy in Russia. Energy in Russia. Nuclear power in Russia. In 2012 total electricity generated in nuclear power plants in Russia was 177.3 TWh, 17.78% of all power generation.

Nuclear power in Russia

The installed gross capacity of Russian nuclear reactors stood at 25,242 MW. The Russian energy strategy of 2003 set a policy priority for reduction in natural gas based power supply, aiming to achieve this through a doubling of nuclear power generation by 2020. In 2006 the Federal Atomic Energy Agency (Rosatom) announced targets for future nuclear power generation; providing 23% of electricity needs by 2020 and 25% by 2030.[2] In 2013 the Russian state allocated 80.6 billion rubles ($2.4 billion) toward the growth of its nuclear industry, especially export projects where Russian companies build, own and operate the power station, such as the Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant.[1] Russia has made plans to increase the number of reactors in operation from 31 to 59.

Old reactors will be maintained and upgraded, including RBMK units similar to the reactors at Chernobyl. Active plants. Agriculture in Russia. For the period before 1989 see Agriculture in the Soviet Union and Agriculture in the Russian Empire.

Agriculture in Russia

Agriculture in Russia survived a severe transition decline in the early 1990s as it struggled to transform from a command economy to a market-oriented system. Following the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, large collective and state farms – the backbone of Soviet agriculture – had to contend with the sudden loss of state-guaranteed marketing and supply channels and a changing legal environment that created pressure for reorganization and restructuring. In less than ten years, livestock inventories declined by half, pulling down demand for feed grains, and the area planted to grains dropped by 25%. The use of mineral fertilizer and other purchased inputs plummeted, driving yields down. Most farms could no longer afford to purchase new machinery and other capital investments. Agriculture in Russia. Fishing industry in Russia.

The coastline of the Russian Federation is the fourth longest in the world after the coastlines of Canada, Greenland, and Indonesia.

Fishing industry in Russia

The Russian fishing industry has an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of 7.6 million km² including access to twelve seas in three oceans, together with the landlocked Caspian Sea and more than two million rivers.[3] According to the FAO, in 2005 the Russian fishing industry harvested 3,190,946 tonnes of fish from wild fisheries and another 114,752 tonnes from aquaculture. This made Russia the ninth leading producer of fish, with 2.3 percent of the world total.[4] Management[edit] Fisheries management is regulated by Russian federal laws. The Law on Fisheries requires that total allowable catch (TAC) levels are set for fishery stocks. The Law on Fisheries also gives a definition of a fishing unit area and sets general principles for their use. Apart from TAC settings, fisheries are also regulated by the so-called Fishing Rules (Pravila rybolovstva).

EEZ[edit] Economy of Russia. GDP per capita (PPP) in 2011, showing countries who have a higher or lower GDP per capita than Russia ($21,921).

Economy of Russia

Despite Russia being considered as a developing country according to some sources, it has one of the highest incomes in Eastern Europe. The Russian economy is currently labeled as a high income economy and by extension, as a developed country by the World Bank.[21] The country has an abundance of natural resources, including timber, precious metals, and particularly fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal) that can be developed without the constraint of OPEC production quotas and other rules (Russia is not an OPEC member).[22] In recent years, Russia's oil and gas production and pipeline projects have been not only a primary source of Russia's economic growth but also a geostrategic lever in the country's relationship with Europe and Asia.[23] Background[edit]

Economy of Russia. Timeline of largest projects in the Russian economy. Transport in Russia. The export of transport services is an important component of Russia’s GDP.

Transport in Russia

The government anticipates that between 2007 and 2030, the measures included in its 2008 transport strategy will increase the export of transport services to a total value of $80 billion, a sevenfold increase on its 2008 value. Foreign cargo weight transported is expected to increase from 28 million tonnes to 100 million tonnes over the same period. Rail transport[edit] Russia has the world's second-largest railway network, second only to that of the United States,[1] with a total track length of 87,157 kilometres (54,157 mi) as of 2011. Of this, 86,200 kilometres (53,600 mi) uses a broad rail gauge of 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in), while a narrow gauge of 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) is used on a 957-km (595-mile) stretch of railway on Sakhalin Island. Rail transport in Russia. Transport in Russia. History of rail transport in Russia. Railroad in Russia around 1900.

History of rail transport in Russia

In Russia, the largest country in the world, its geography of N. -S. rivers and E. -W. commerce made it very suited to develop railroads as its basic mode of transportation. Railroad traffic in the Russian Empire (before 1917) was weak compared to the size of the country, but it boomed under the Soviet Union (1917 to 1991) only to decline after the Soviet Union fell apart, with the Russian Federation being its principal inheritor. The Soviets modernized the rail system by electrification, building new lines and double-tracking, installing automatic couplers, brakes, and signalling, and founding Railway Universities. Today Russian Railways, a state-owned railway company, is one of the biggest railway companies in the world with 0.95 million employees [1] and a monopoly within Russia. Economic history[edit] Government ownership[edit] Moscow to St Petersburg Railway, 1857 The government was able to turn around some money-losing railroads and make them profitable.