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Louis Pasteur ( pron.: / ˈ l uː i p æ ˈ s t ɜr / , French: [lwi pastœʁ] ; December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist who was one of the most important founders of medical microbiology . He is remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and preventions of diseases. His discoveries reduced mortality from puerperal fever , and he created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax . His experiments supported the germ theory of disease . He was best known to the general public for inventing a method to treat milk and wine in order to prevent it from causing sickness, a process that came to be called pasteurization . He is regarded as one of the three main founders of microbiology , together with Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch .
(13 de octubre de 1821 , Schivelbein , Pomerania , Prusia - 5 de septiembre de 1902 , Berlín ) fue un médico alemán considerado como uno de los más prominentes patólogos del siglo XIX . Además de por su labor científica también se le reconoce como estadista, al haber ocupado diversos cargos públicos. Le fue concedida la Medalla Copley en 1892 . Fue nominado al Premio Nobel de Medicina en tres ocasiones, sin resultado. [ 1 ] Rudolph Virchow, por Hugo Vogel.
Augustin-Jean Fresnel ( / f r eɪ ˈ n ɛ l / fray- NEL ; French: [ɔ.ɡy.stɛ̃ ʒɑ̃ fʁɛ.nɛl] ; 1788–1827), was a French engineer and physicist who contributed significantly to the establishment of the theory of wave optics . Fresnel studied the behaviour of light both theoretically and experimentally. He is perhaps best known as the inventor of the Fresnel lens , first adopted in lighthouses while he was a French commissioner of lighthouses, and found in many applications today. His Fresnel equations on waves and reflectivity also form the basis for many applications in computer graphics today - for instance, the rendering of water . [ edit ] Biography Fresnel was the son of an architect, born at Broglie ( Eure ).
Étienne-Louis Malus (23 July 1775 – 24 February 1812) was a French officer , engineer , physicist , and mathematician . Malus was born in Paris , France . He participated in Napoleon's expedition into Egypt (1798 to 1801) and was a member of the mathematics section of the Institut d'Égypte . Malus became a member of the Académie des Sciences in 1810. In 1810 the Royal Society of London awarded him the Rumford Medal .
François Jean Dominique Arago ( Catalan : Francesc Joan Domènec Aragó ), known simply as François Arago ( French: [fʁɑ̃swa aʁaɡo] ; Catalan: Francesc Aragó , IPA: [fɾənˈsɛsk əɾəˈɣo] ) (1786–1853), was a French mathematician , physicist , astronomer , freemason , [ 1 ] carbonari [ 2 ] and politician. [ edit ] Early life and work Arago was born at Estagel , a small village near Perpignan , in the département of Pyrénées-Orientales , France, where his father held the position of Treasurer of the Mint.
Jean-Baptiste Biot (21 April 1774 – 3 February 1862) was a French physicist , astronomer , and mathematician who established the reality of meteorites , made an early balloon flight, and studied the polarization of light . [ edit ] Biography Jean-Baptiste Biot was born in Paris, France on 21 April 1774 and died in Paris on 3 February 1862. Biot served in the artillery before he was appointed professor of mathematics at Beauvais in 1797. He later went on to become a professor of physics at the Collège de France around 1800, and three years later was elected as a member of the Academy of Sciences. In 1804 Biot was on board for the first scientific hot-air balloon ride with Gay-Lussac (NNDB 2009, O’Connor and Robertson 1997).