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Cognitive Bias, Distortions & Logical Fallacies

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Bias. List of cognitive biases. Cognitive biases are systematic deviations from a standard of rationality or good judgment, often confirmed by research in psychology and behavioral economics .

List of cognitive biases

List of cognitive biases. Cognitive biases, categorized. Cognitive bias. Some cognitive biases are presumably adaptive.

Cognitive bias

Cognitive biases may lead to more effective actions in a given context.[7] Furthermore, cognitive biases enable faster decisions when timeliness is more valuable than accuracy, as illustrated in heuristics.[8] Other cognitive biases are a "by-product" of human processing limitations,[9] resulting from a lack of appropriate mental mechanisms (bounded rationality), or simply from a limited capacity for information processing.[10][11] A continually evolving list of cognitive biases has been identified over the last six decades of research on human judgment and decision-making in cognitive science, social psychology, and behavioral economics. Kahneman and Tversky (1996) argue that cognitive biases have efficient practical implications for areas including clinical judgment, entrepreneurship, finance, and management.[12][13] Overview[edit] Bias arises from various processes that are sometimes difficult to distinguish.

Types[edit] List[edit] List of memory biases. The 12 cognitive biases that prevent you from being rational. Top 10 Thinking Traps Exposed — How to Foolproof Your Mind, Part I. Our minds set up many traps for us. Unless we’re aware of them, these traps can seriously hinder our ability to think rationally, leading us to bad reasoning and making stupid decisions.

Top 10 Common Faults In Human Thought. Humans The human mind is a wonderful thing.

Top 10 Common Faults In Human Thought

Cognition, the act or process of thinking, enables us to process vast amounts of information quickly. For example, every time your eyes are open, you brain is constantly being bombarded with stimuli. You may be consciously thinking about one specific thing, but you brain is processing thousands of subconscious ideas. 8 Common Thinking Mistakes Our Brains Make Every Day and How to Prevent Them.

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8 Common Thinking Mistakes Our Brains Make Every Day and How to Prevent Them

I was seriously shocked at some of these mistakes in thinking that I subconsciously make all the time. Obviously, none of them are huge, life-threatening mistakes, but they are really surprising and avoiding them could help us to make more rational, sensible decisions. Especially as we thrive for continues self-improvement at Buffer, if we look at our values, being aware of the mistakes we naturally have in our thinking can make a big difference in avoiding them.

7 Stupid Thinking Errors You Probably Make. The brain isn’t a flawless piece of machinery.

7 Stupid Thinking Errors You Probably Make

Although it is powerful and comes in an easy to carry container, it has it’s weaknesses. A field in psychology which studies these errors, known as biases. Although you can’t upgrade your mental hardware, noticing these biases can clue you into possible mistakes.How Bias Hurts You If you were in a canoe, you’d probably want to know about any holes in the boat before you start paddling. Biases can be holes in your reasoning abilities and they can impair your decision making. Confirmation Bias. People search for information that confirms their view of the world and ignore what doesn’t fit.

Confirmation Bias

In an uncertain world, people love to be right because it helps us make sense of things. Indeed some psychologists think it’s akin to a basic drive. One of the ways they strive to be correct is by looking for evidence that confirms they are correct, sometimes with depressing or comic results: A woman hires a worker that turns out to be incompetent. She doesn’t notice that everyone else is doing his work for him because she is so impressed that he shows up every day, right on time.A sports fan who believes his team is the best only seems to remember the matches they won and none of the embarrassing defeats to inferior opponents.A man who loves the country life, but has to move to the city for a new job, ignores the flight-path he lives under and noisy-neighbours-from-hell and tells you how much he enjoys the farmer’s market and tending his window box. 1.

Dunning Kruger effect

The Worse-Than-Average Effect: When You're Better Than You Think. People underestimate their ability at stereotypically difficult tasks like playing chess, telling jokes, juggling or computer programming. Recently I covered the Dunning-Kruger effect which explains why the incompetent don’t know they’re incompetent. But there’s a flip-side to the Dunning-Kruger: sometimes the competent don’t know when they’re competent. This is the worse-than-average effect. Attribution: How We Explain Behavior. In social psychology, attribution is the process of inferring the causes of events or behaviors.

Attribution: How We Explain Behavior

In real life, attribution is something we all do every day, usually without any awareness of the underlying processes and biases that lead to our inferences. For example, over the course of a typical day you probably make numerous attributions about your own behavior as well as that of the people around you. When you get a poor grade on a quiz, you might blame the teacher for not adequately explaining the material, completely dismissing the fact that you didn't study.

Fundamental Attribution Error

Group attribution error. The group attribution error is an attribution bias analogous to the fundamental attribution error in that it refers to people's tendency to believe either (1) that the characteristics of an individual group member are reflective of the group as a whole, or (2) that a group's decision outcome must reflect the preferences of individual group members, even when information is available suggesting otherwise.

Group attribution error

The fundamental attribution error is similar in that it refers to the tendency to believe that an individual's actions are representative of the individual's preferences, even when available information suggests that the actions were caused by outside forces. Type I[edit] To demonstrate the first form of group attribution error, research participants are typically given case studies about individuals who are members of defined groups (such as members of a particular occupation, nationality, or ethnicity), and then take surveys to determine their views of the groups as a whole. How to Minimize Your Biases When Making Decisions - Robert F. Wolf. By Robert F.

How to Minimize Your Biases When Making Decisions - Robert F. Wolf

Wolf | 11:00 AM September 24, 2012 “There is always an easy solution to every human problem — neat, plausible, and wrong.” Little did he know it when he penned these words, but journalist H.L. Mencken was tapping into the very core of behavioral decision making and the need to understand and compensate for it. Every day, senior managers are tasked with making very significant strategic decisions for their companies, which usually require support by teams of internal and external experts and a heavy dose of research. Welcome to Less Wrong.

Cognitive distortion. Cognitive distortions are thoughts that cognitive therapists believe cause individuals to perceive reality inaccurately.

Cognitive distortion

These thinking patterns often are said to reinforce negative thoughts or emotions.[2] Cognitive distortions tend to interfere with the way a person perceives an event. Because the way a person feels intervenes with how they think, these distorted thoughts can feed negative emotions and lead an individual affected by cognitive distortions towards an overall negative outlook on the world and consequently a depressive or anxious mental state. History[edit] In 1980, Burns published his book, Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy,[4] (with a preface from Beck) and nine years later published The Feeling Good Handbook in 1989.

These books built on Beck's work, delving deeper into the definition, development, and treatment of cognitive distortions, specifically in regards to depression or anxiety disorders. Main types[edit] Cognitive distortion. 50 Common Cognitive Distortions. 3. Negative predictions. Overestimating the likelihood that an action will have a negative outcome. 4. Underestimating coping ability. Underestimating your ability cope with negative events. 5. Thinking of unpleasant events as catastrophes. 6. 15 Styles of Distorted Thinking. Fallacies. Fallacies. Master List of Logical Fallacies. Logical Fallacies. Taxonomy of the Logical Fallacies.

A List Of Fallacious Arguments. Attacking the person instead of attacking his argument. The 10 Commandments Of Logic. Thinking Traps.