Biological basis of sexual orientation. CONTACT: Stanford University News Service (415) 723-2558 Biological basis of sexual orientation STANFORD -- Research into the biological basis of sexual orientation "presents a clear double message. Yes, genetics plays a part. No, it is not all genetics," Dora B. "This shouldn't be too surprising because that is what all kinds of behavioral studies indicate. In her noon presentation, Goldstein reviewed relevant research in a number of different areas: population studies, family studies, twin studies, genetic research, childhood behavior, and brain differences.
The often used statistic that about 10 percent of men are homosexual comes from a study performed by Kinsey. The results of this survey are supported by studies of "gender non-conforming children. " Finally, there is some evidence that the brains of homosexuals may be different from those of heterosexual men and women. -dfs- 950310Arc5328.html This is an archived release. This release is not available in any other form. Understanding Gender - Gender Spectrum. People tend to use the terms “sex” and “gender” interchangeably. We assign a newborn’s sex as either male or female, based on their genitals (some countries offer a third identification option, for Intersex people). Once a sex is assigned, we presume the child’s gender. Someone born with a penis will be a boy and someone with a vulva will be a girl. For many people, this is cause for little, if any, concern or further thought.
Dimensions of Gender While our gender may begin with the assignment of our sex, it doesn’t end there. . – Body: our body, our experience of our own body, how society genders bodies, and how others interact with us based on our body. – Identity: our deeply held, internal sense of self as male, female, a blend of both, or neither; who we internally know ourselves to be. – Expression: how we present our gender in the world and how society, culture, community, and family perceive, interact with, and try to shape our gender. Body Identity Expression What’s Next? The Gender Spectrum. Printer-friendly version Illustration by Olaf Hajek When we meet a newborn baby, most of us ask the same question: boy or girl? Often, the answer is easy. Often, but not always. Meet Alex, a fourth-grader in Madison, Wis., with long, blond hair, a lanky build and a broad smile. When you meet Alex, you see a clever, confident kid who can move a mile a minute. Boy or girl?
When we meet people for the first time, we look for gender cues in a way so automated we don’t even know we’re doing it. Then someone like Alex (we used a pseudonym to protect Alex’s privacy) walks into the room, and everything we thought we knew about gender flies out the window. Gender may seem simple, but the myths surrounding this concept mask its true complexity. In the parlance of gender development, sex exists between your legs—it’s your biology, your chromosomes, your anatomy. For most kids, birth sex and gender identity match. The terminology used to describe these identities is vast and evolving. So, boy or girl? Androcentrism: It’s Okay to Be a Boy, but Being a Girl… Sociologists use the term “androcentrism” to refer to a new kind of sexism, one that replaces the favoring of men over women with the favoring of masculinity over femininity.
According to the rules of androcentrism, men and women alike are rewarded, but only insofar as they are masculine (e.g., they play sports, drink whiskey, and are lawyers or surgeons w00t!). Meanwhile, men are punished for doing femininity and women… well, women are required to do femininity and simultaneously punished for it. Illustrating this concept, much more concisely, is this altered photograph of James Franco in drag. Sent along by Stephanie V., the photo was originally for the cover of Candy, a “transversal style” fashion magazine. I’m not sure who added the copy,* but I like it: * So Caro Visi, where I found the image, credits Virus, but I can’t find it there. I’m happy to properly credit if someone can point me in the right direction. Clip from The Cement Garden: The Problem with Tomboys — Gender Justice/Feminism. One night, after a particularly rough break-up, I told a close male friend of mine that my ex had once told me he wished I were more feminine.
The ex was a jerk in many other ways, it turned out, but that comment particularly annoyed me. My male friend admitted I was “kind of a tomboy.” I nodded, which is what I felt I was supposed to do perhaps, but the comment perturbed me. The next day, still thinking about it, I asked my friend to clarify why he had called me a tomboy. It doesn’t surprise me that some men — many men, perhaps — still think that women and girls should be dainty and clean, should sit inside and do traditionally “feminine” things like cook and gossip, while the men get to have adventures in the outdoors. Why do we need a word that includes the suffix “boy” to describe the girl who can get along with guys, who is strong and athletic, who says what she thinks, who feels just as much herself in sneakers and athletic clothes as she does in a dress? When Women Wanted Sex Much More Than Men.
In the 1600s, a man named James Mattock was expelled from the First Church of Boston. His crime? It wasn’t using lewd language or smiling on the sabbath or anything else that we might think the Puritans had disapproved of. Rather, James Mattock had refused to have sex with his wife for two years. Though Mattock’s community clearly saw his self-deprivation as improper, it is quite possible that they had his wife’s suffering in mind when they decided to shun him.
Yet today, the idea that men are more interested in sex than women is so pervasive that it seems almost unremarkable. The idea that men are naturally more interested in sex than women is ubiquitous that it’s difficult to imagine that people ever believed differently. Early twentieth-century physician and psychologist Havelock Ellis may have been the first to document the ideological change that had recently taken place. Yet the times were clearly changing. So what happened? The First Sex Manual Published in North America, 1766. The first sex education text printed in North America may have come with a fake pedigree, but it went on to distinction as the go-to for thousands of sexually curious young people. The first American edition, printed in Boston in 1766, is titled Aristotle’s Complete Master-Piece, In Three Parts; Displaying the Secrets of Nature in the Generation of Man (find a copy online here). Since its first publication in England in 1684, it has seen dozens of editions, some more “Complete” than others, and with various titles, with publishers adding, editing, and rewriting material as they saw fit.
The first American copy (title page above) appends a work called A Treasure of Health, or The Family Physician, as an attempt, most likely, to give the controversial Master-Piece legitimacy as a medical textbook. There’s quite a bit of meaning for early modern literary scholars to tease out and religious conservatives to agree with. Via Booktryst Related Content: Male and female brains wired differently, scans reveal | Science. Scientists have drawn on nearly 1,000 brain scans to confirm what many had surely concluded long ago: that stark differences exist in the wiring of male and female brains.
Maps of neural circuitry showed that on average women's brains were highly connected across the left and right hemispheres, in contrast to men's brains, where the connections were typically stronger between the front and back regions. Ragini Verma, a researcher at the University of Pennsylvania, said the greatest surprise was how much the findings supported old stereotypes, with men's brains apparently wired more for perception and co-ordinated actions, and women's for social skills and memory, making them better equipped for multitasking. "If you look at functional studies, the left of the brain is more for logical thinking, the right of the brain is for more intuitive thinking. So if there's a task that involves doing both of those things, it would seem that women are hardwired to do those better," Verma said.