COSMOLOGY

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•Cosmology is the study of the origin, evolution and ultimately the fate of the Universe. (How did it all begin - Theoretical)

Cosmic microwave background. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is the thermal radiation assumed to be left over from the "Big Bang" of cosmology.

Cosmic microwave background

In older literature, the CMB is also variously known as cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) or "relic radiation. " The CMB is a cosmic background radiation that is fundamental to observational cosmology because it is the oldest light in the universe, dating to the epoch of recombination. With a traditional optical telescope, the space between stars and galaxies (the background) is completely dark. However, a sufficiently sensitive radio telescope shows a faint background glow, almost exactly the same in all directions, that is not associated with any star, galaxy, or other object. This glow is strongest in the microwave region of the radio spectrum. Major Discovery: 'Smoking Gun' for Universe's Incredible Big Bang Expansion Found. Astronomers have found the first direct evidence of cosmic inflation, the theorized dramatic expansion of the universe that put the "bang" in the Big Bang 13.8 billion years ago, new research suggests.

Major Discovery: 'Smoking Gun' for Universe's Incredible Big Bang Expansion Found

If it holds up, the landmark discovery — which also confirms the existence of hypothesized ripples in space-time known as gravitational waves — would give researchers a much better understanding of the Big Bang and its immediate aftermath. The sun sets behind BICEP2 (in the foreground) and the South Pole Telescope (in the background).Credit: Steffen Richter (Harvard University)

The Origin, History, Evolution & Future of the Universe

Dark Matter & Dark Energy. The Big Bang to Civilization: 10 Amazing Origin Events | Origin Life. By Roger Briggs | December 12, 2013 05:57pm ET Credit: CERN Roger Briggs is the author of "Journey to Civilization: The Science of How We Got Here" (Collins Foundation Press, 2013).

The Big Bang to Civilization: 10 Amazing Origin Events | Origin Life

Colorful Hubble Telescope Image Is Best-Ever View of Universe's Evolution (Video) BOSTON — The Hubble Space Telescope has captured an amazing and colorful deep view of the universe, showing galaxies shining in ultraviolet light during their wild, star-forming "teenage" years.

Colorful Hubble Telescope Image Is Best-Ever View of Universe's Evolution (Video)

The new image, which was released today (June 3), is the most comprehensive view of the evolving universe ever captured by the space telescope, Hubble representatives said. Hubble previously imaged the same patch of sky shown in the new image between 2004 and 2009 to create a super-detailed view known as the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. The new Hubble telescope picture — a composite of exposures taken from 2003 to 2012 — is called the Ultraviolet Coverage of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and contains about 10,000 galaxies, with the ultraviolet (UV) images rendered in blue. Story of the Biggest Experiment in History Caught on Film. On July 4, 2012, scientists around the world waited with bated breath for the announcement that the long-awaited Higgs boson particle had been discovered.

Story of the Biggest Experiment in History Caught on Film

The finding — the result of the biggest and most expensive experiment in history — was set to either confirm reigning models of particle physics, or reveal gaps in scientists' understanding of the universe. A new documentary follows six scientists during the launch of the machine that made the discovery possible, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a gigantic particle accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), in Switzerland, as they attempt to recreate the earliest moments of the universe.

"Particle Fever" captures the scientists' sense of excitement and foreboding leading up to the discovery of the Higgs, the particle that explains how other particles get their mass. Is the lopsided Universe telling us we need new theories? The Universe is incredibly regular.

Is the lopsided Universe telling us we need new theories?

The variation of the cosmos' temperature across the entire sky is tiny: a few millionths of a degree, no matter which direction you look. Yet the same light from the very early cosmos that reveals the Universe's evenness also tells astronomers a great deal about the conditions that gave rise to irregularities like stars, galaxies, and (incidentally) us. That light is the cosmic microwave background, and it provides some of the best knowledge we have about the structure, content, and history of the Universe. But it also contains a few mysteries: on very large scales, the cosmos seems to have a certain lopsidedness. That slight asymmetry is reflected in temperature fluctuations much larger than any galaxy, aligned on the sky in a pattern facetiously dubbed "the axis of evil.” Getting the math of the Universe to cancel out. The vacuum of space isn't actually "empty"; it teems with particles that pop in and out of existence, giving the vacuum an energy of its own.

Getting the math of the Universe to cancel out

But here's an embarrassing fact about that energy: it predicts that the cosmological constant (which provides a measure of the rate of the expansion of the Universe) should be 10120 times larger than we think it actually is. Most scientists prefer things to be a bit more accurate than this. Still, the main question on cosmologists' minds is not why the predicted and real values appear to be so different, but how it is that the vacuum energy does so little.

An answer of sorts has recently appeared in Physical Review Letters. Stephen Hawking at 70: still the brightest star in the scientific universe | Science | The Observer. Professor of mathematics and astronomy, Queen Mary, University of London.

Stephen Hawking at 70: still the brightest star in the scientific universe | Science | The Observer

Stephen Hawking's PhD student 1972-75 Stephen's discovery in 1974 that black holes emit thermal radiation due to quantum effects was one of the most important results in 20th-century physics. This is because it unified three previously disparate areas of physics – quantum theory, general relativity and thermodynamics. Like all such unifying ideas, it is so beautiful that it almost has to be true, even though it has still not been experimentally confirmed. The renowned physicist John Wheeler once told me that just talking about it was like "rolling candy on the tongue".

Stephen Hawking, everything you need to know – infographic. First Planck results: the Universe is still weird and interesting. Our current model of cosmology—the origin and structure of the whole Universe—has survived another major test, with the release of the first 15 months of data from the Planck mission.

First Planck results: the Universe is still weird and interesting

Planck is a European Space Agency mission, designed to study the cosmic microwave background (CMB), which preserves information about the conditions that persisted immediately after the Big Bang. Combined with results from prior experiments, Planck has revealed a Universe a little older than previously thought, and with a slightly different balance of ingredients. Although there were no major surprises, some of its data provided stronger hints about inflation, a popular model that explains why the modern Universe looks the way it does. Enigmatic Flashes from the Edge of the Cosmos - Out There | Discovermagazine.com. They come from somewhere in the distant universe–probably some 6 billion to 11 billion light years away.

Enigmatic Flashes from the Edge of the Cosmos - Out There | Discovermagazine.com

They don’t last very long, only about one-thousandth of a second. They happen all the time, up to 10,000 times a day. They create intense bursts of radio emission but nothing else–no light, no x-rays, no other visible evidence. And nobody knows what they are. Cosmic Mystery Box Contents Deduced - Space News.

Image Caption: Cosmic rays are thought to originate in nests of massive stars called OB associations, like this one in the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way. But how did scientists figure that out? Credit: NASA, ESA, & F. Really, REALLY fast... That's how quickly the universe is expanding, according to most accurate estimate yet made by science. The rate of expansion of the cosmos, known as Hubble's constant, is crucial for working out its age and size Nasa's Spitzer Space Telescope able to improve on previous estimates because its infrared vision sees through cosmic dust and debris By Damien Gayle Published: 09:38 GMT, 5 October 2012 | Updated: 12:21 GMT, 5 October 2012 Scientists have given the most accurate estimate yet of how fast the universe is expanding.

A team of astronomers used Nasa's Spitzer Space Telescope to clock the expansion of the cosmos at a phenomenal 46 miles per second per megaparsec. Are we the extra terrestrials? New study backs theory that life was brought to Earth by space microbes. By Mark Prigg Published: 15:33 GMT, 25 September 2012 | Updated: 17:15 GMT, 25 September 2012 Extraterrestrial microbes might have brought life to Earth after travelling through space for millions of years, say scientists. The theory is based on calculations showing a high likelihood of rock fragments from planets in other star systems landing on Earth long ago. Some of them could have carried embedded micro-organisms, according to experts writing in the journal Astrobiology.

Scroll down for Video. Is the secret of the 'previous' universe hidden in the microwaves? Scientist 'spots' ghost from before the Big Bang. By Eddie Wrenn Updated: 11:12 GMT, 11 June 2012 A renowned scientist says he has spotted evidence that a universe existed before the Big Bang. Professor Roger Penrose from Oxford University says concentric circles discovered in the background microwaves of the universe provides evidence of events that took place before the universe came into being. The cosmic microwave offers us a ghostly look at the the universe just 300,000 years after the Big Ban' - a microscopic amount of time compared to the universe's estimated age of 13.7billion years. Amazing new pictures of the first moments following the Big Bang. By Daily Mail Reporter Published: 05:56 GMT, 8 June 2012 | Updated: 07:32 GMT, 8 June 2012 A space telescope has captured a glimpse back into the deepest reaches of time - just after the Big Bangm, 13.7 billion years ago.

Astronomers say that the images show the flaming lights from the Spitzer Space Telescope are among the first stars formed after the big bang that spawned the universe as we know it. Einstein proved right over universe: General theory of relativity correctly measures the rapid expansion of space driven by mysterious 'dark energy' Cosmos: A Personal Voyage. Lawrence Krauss: Opinions on the Cosmos. The Fabric of the Cosmos with Brian Greene: Watch the Complete NOVA Series Online. Scientists create hottest temperature since Big Bang - 250,000 times warmer than centre of the sun. Complex Organic Matter Discovered Created by Stars Throughout the Universe. Introduction to Cosmology. The History of the Universe in 200 Words or Less.

Cosmology: the first people ever to spot "dark galaxies"


  1. charmainezoe Jan 8 2013
    Cosmology is the study of the origins and eventual fate of the universe. Physical cosmology is the scholarly and scientific study of the origin, evolution, structure, and ultimate fate of the universe, as well as the natural laws that keep it in order.

    Modern cosmology is dominated by the Big Bang theory, which attempts to bring together observational astronomy and particle physics.