Category:Human rights by issue
Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Les quatorze besoins fondamentaux représentent un modèle conceptuel en sciences humaines et notamment en soins infirmiers. Ils font partie des courants de pensée infirmière et sont proposés par Virginia Henderson depuis 1947.
Center for Cognitive Liberty & Ethics (CCLE)
An interpretation of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, represented as a pyramid with the more basic needs at the bottom Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" in Psychological Review. Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity. His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology, some of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans.
Voici une représentation de la pyramide des besoins de Maslow. Elle présente une hiérarchisation de nos besoins qui a été beaucoup utilisée par les spécialistes du marketing pour analyser nos motivations dans les actes de consommation. Maslow distingue cinq grandes catégories de besoins. Pyramide ou roue de Maslow ?
The Right to Equal Protection is a concept that was introduced into the Constitution of the United States during the American Civil War. It is intended to protect the rights provided by the United States Constitution for all individuals regardless of race, ethnicity, gender, etc. It is fundamentally based on the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution, intended to secure rights for former slaves. The Constitution is claimed to uphold racial and gender equality, but until the 1950s, enforcing slavery, segregation, and gender inequality were major aspects of the history of the American federal government. Constitutional basis of equal rights Right to equal protection
Right to protest The right to protest is a perceived human right arising out of a number of recognized human rights. While no human rights instrument or national constitution grants the absolute right to protest, such a right to protest may be a manifestation of the right to freedom of assembly, the right to freedom of association, and the right to freedom of speech. Many international treaties contain clear enunciations of these rights. Such agreements include the 1950 European Convention on Human Rights, especially Articles 9 to 11; and the 1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, especially Articles 18 to 22.
Right to education The right to education is a universal entitlement to education, recognized in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights as a human right that includes the right to free, compulsory primary education for all, an obligation to develop secondary education accessible to all, in particular by the progressive introduction of free secondary education, as well as an obligation to develop equitable access to higher education, ideally by the progressive introduction of free higher education. The right to education also includes a responsibility to provide basic education for individuals who have not completed primary education. In addition to these access to education provisions, the right to education encompasses the obligation to rule out discrimination at all levels of the educational system, to set minimum standards and to improve quality of education. International legal basis
Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. L'expression travailleurs pauvres (« working poor » en anglais) s'utilise pour décrire des personnes qui ont un emploi la majorité de l’année, mais qui demeurent dans la pauvreté, du fait de la faiblesse de leurs revenus (revenus d'activité plus prestations sociales). Par métonymie, le terme de travailleurs pauvres s’utilise pour désigner les familles entières dont ces travailleurs font partie. Généralités[modifier | modifier le code] En 2004, l'essentiel des travailleurs pauvres dans les pays développés occupaient des postes non-qualifiés ou peu qualifiés. Dans de nombreux cas, ils ont des emplois partiels, et n'ont pas les avantages d'un contrat stable (CDI en France), ouvrant droit à l'Assurance chômage. Travailleur pauvre
Workers exhibiting a good work ethic in theory should be selected for better positions, more responsibility and ultimately promotion. Workers who fail to exhibit a good work ethic may be regarded as failing to provide fair value for the wage the employer is paying them and should not be promoted or placed in positions of greater responsibility. Support Steven Malanga refers to "what was once understood as the work ethic—not just hard work but also a set of accompanying virtues, whose crucial role in the development and sustaining of free markets too few now recall. Max Weber quotes the ethical writings of Benjamin Franklin: Remember, that time is money. Work ethic
Decent work is the availability of employment in conditions of freedom, equity, human security and dignity. According to the International Labour Organization ILO, Decent Work involves opportunities for work that is productive and delivers a fair income, security in the workplace and social protection for families, better prospects for personal development and social integration, freedom for people to express their concerns, organize and participate in the decisions that affect their lives and equality of opportunity and treatment for all women and men. United Nations Economic and Social Council has also given a General Comment that defines "decent work" and requires satisfaction of Article 7 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. The ILO is developing an agenda for the community of work, represented by its tripartite constituents, to mobilize their considerable resources to create those opportunities and to help reduce and eradicate poverty . Decent work
Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. La qualité de vie d’une population est un enjeu majeur en sciences économiques et en science politique. On utilise les notions proches d’utilité et de bien-être. Elle est mesurée par de nombreux indicateurs socio-économiques (l’indice de développement humain (IDH) par exemple). Qualité de vie
In public policy, a living wage is the minimum income necessary for a worker to meet their needs that are considered to be basic. This is not necessarily the same as subsistence, which refers to a biological minimum, though the two terms are commonly confused. These needs include shelter (housing) and other incidentals such as clothing and nutrition. In some nations such as the United Kingdom and Switzerland, this standard generally means that a person working forty hours a week, with no additional income, should be able to afford the basics for quality of life, food, utilities, transport, health care, and minimal recreation, one course a year to upgrade their education and childcare although in many cases education, saving for retirement, and less commonly legal fees and insurance, or taking care of a sick or elderly family member are not included. Living wage
Poor people spend so much mental energy on the immediate problems of paying bills and cutting costs that they are left with less capacity to deal with other complex but important tasks, including education, training or managing their time, suggests research published on Thursday. The cognitive deficit of being preoccupied with money problems was equivalent to a loss of 13 IQ points, losing an entire night's sleep or being a chronic alcoholic, according to the study. The authors say this could explain why poorer people are more likely to make mistakes or bad decisions that exacerbate their financial difficulties. Anandi Mani, a research fellow at the Centre for Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy at the University of Warwick, one of the four authors of the study, said the findings also suggest how small interventions or "nudges" at appropriate moments to help poor people access services and resources could help them break out of the poverty trap. Poverty saps mental capacity to deal with complex tasks, say scientists | Science
Niveau de vie Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Le niveau de vie fait référence à la qualité et quantité des biens et services qu’une personne ou une population entière peut s’approprier. Il ne doit pas être confondu avec la notion connexe mais distincte de « Genre de vie » Mesure et définition[modifier | modifier le code] La notion de niveau de vie est différente de celle de qualité de vie qui ne prend pas seulement en compte le niveau de vie matériel, mais qui intègre également des facteurs plus subjectifs qui participent à la vie humaine, comme les loisirs, la sécurité, les ressources culturelles, la santé mentale, etc. Des moyens plus complexes pour mesurer le bien-être doivent être employés pour rendre de tels jugements ; ils sont souvent politiques et donc sujets à controverse.
April 17: Resistance Grows in Defense of Peasant Seeds Details Published on Wednesday, 16 April 2014 14:43 Press Release—la Vía Campesina
Right to an adequate standard of living The right to an adequate standard of living is recognized as a human right in international human rights instruments and is understood to establish a minimum entitlement to food, clothing and housing at a subsistence level. The right to food and the right to housing have been further defined in human rights instruments. The right to an adequate standard of living is enshrined in Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and Article 11 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. The most significant inspiration for the inclusion of the right to an adequate standard of living in the UDHR was the Four Freedoms speech by US President Franklin Roosevelt, which declared amongst others the freedom from want.
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