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The Standard Model. The theories and discoveries of thousands of physicists since the 1930s have resulted in a remarkable insight into the fundamental structure of matter: everything in the universe is found to be made from a few basic building blocks called fundamental particles, governed by four fundamental forces. Our best understanding of how these particles and three of the forces are related to each other is encapsulated in the Standard Model of particle physics. Developed in the early 1970s, it has successfully explained almost all experimental results and precisely predicted a wide variety of phenomena. Over time and through many experiments, the Standard Model has become established as a well-tested physics theory.

Matter particles All matter around us is made of elementary particles, the building blocks of matter. Forces and carrier particles There are four fundamental forces at work in the universe: the strong force, the weak force, the electromagnetic force, and the gravitational force. Pie.jpg (JPEG Image, 790 × 600 pixels)


Einstein for Everyone. Einstein for Everyone Nullarbor Press 2007revisions 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 Copyright 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 John D. Norton Published by Nullarbor Press, 500 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 with offices in Liberty Ave., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 15222 All Rights Reserved John D.

Norton Center for Philosophy of Science Department of History and Philosophy of Science University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh PA USA 15260 An advanced sequel is planned in this series:Einstein for Almost Everyone 2 4 6 8 9 7 5 3 1 ePrinted in the United States of America no trees were harmed web*bookTM This book is a continuing work in progress. January 1, 2015. Preface For over a decade I have taught an introductory, undergraduate class, "Einstein for Everyone," at the University of Pittsburgh to anyone interested enough to walk through door. At the same time, my lecture notes have evolved. This text owes a lot to many. I i i. Personal and Historical Perspectives of Hans Bethe. The Five Great Problems in Theoretical Physics - Lee Smolin's Five Great Problems in Theoretical Physics. In his controversial 2006 book The Trouble with Physics: The Rise of String Theory, the Fall of a Science, and What Comes Next, theoretical physicist Lee Smolin points out "five great problems in theoretical physics.

" The problem of quantum gravity: Combine general relativity and quantum theory into a single theory that can claim to be the complete theory of nature. The foundational problems of quantum mechanics: Resolve the problems in the foundations of quantum mechanics, either by making sense of the theory as it stands or by inventing a new theory that does make sense. The unification of particles and forces: Determine whether or not the various particles and forces can be unified in a theory that explains them all as manifestations of a single, fundamental entity. The tuning problem: Explain how the values of the free constants in the standard model of particle physics are chosen in nature. The problem of cosmological mysteries: Explain dark matter and dark energy. Famous Astronomers and Astrophysicists.


Probing The Matrix: Is our universe simulated, and if so… by who? Interpreting the universe as a computer simulation is perhaps the inevitable byproduct of living in the computer age. The question today is not whether we live inside a simulation, but rather — what does it want, and what compromises with regard to the welfare its inhabitants might have been made to get it? The first rudimentary experiments to poke it in the belly and see how it jiggles are just getting underway.

If it’s possible to hack the universe, then particle physicists must be its early phone phreakers. Fears, which turned out to exaggerated, were raised few years ago that a black hole might unwittingly be created inside the Large Hadron Collider. Arguably, it is more accurate to say that with the theories that prescribe the existence of subatomic particles that exist nowhere else in the known universe, these folks actually invent them, rather than just discover them.

The Matrix If the universe is a simulation, why is it being simulated in the first place? Millennium Simulation Project. Introduction: The Millennium Simulation The Millennium Run used more than 10 billion particles to trace the evolution of the matter distribution in a cubic region of the Universe over 2 billion light-years on a side. It kept busy the principal supercomputer at the Max Planck Society's Supercomputing Centre in Garching, Germany for more than a month. By applying sophisticated modelling techniques to the 25 Tbytes of stored output, Virgo scientists have been able to recreate evolutionary histories both for the 20 million or so galaxies which populate this enormous volume and for the supermassive black holes which occasionally power quasars at their hearts. By comparing such simulated data to large observational surveys, one can clarify the physical processes underlying the buildup of real galaxies and black holes.

Movies of the simulation A 3-dimensional visualization of the Millennium Simulation. Get this movie in different versions: Get this movie in different resolutions: References. The Millenium Simulation HD - A journey through the Universe. Jay Alfred - Acupuncture Meridians & the Cosmic Spider Web. Posted on Friday, 2 March, 2007 | 1 comment Columnist: Jay Alfred In 1999 computer simulations of magnetic fields in galaxy clusters by Klaus Dolag revealed that galaxy clusters are embedded in a large-scale spider-web-like structure of filaments. Extensive galaxy surveys also show that structures resembling sheets and filaments characterize the distribution of galaxies.

Consistent with the simulations, this distribution resembles a complicated spider's web several hundred mega parsecs in diameter. According to Nobel laureate, Hans Alfvén, space is filled with a network of currents which transfer energy and momentum over large distances. Hot plasma streams along such filamentary currents. Invisible Filaments in SpaceAstronomers say that the filamentary structures are so hot that it would generally be invisible to optical, infrared, and radio telescopes. . - Click here to view filament diagram - © Copyright 2007 Jay Alfred.

The Known Universe by AMNH. Stephen Hawking - Home. Welcome to Explorations in Science with Dr. Michio Kaku. 7 Space Simulators That Let You Explore the Universe. Why should Mars rovers have all the fun? If you're tired of standing by while Curiosity rolls around up there, it's time to head out on the open exosphere and explore the universe for yourself — digitally, of course.

SEE ALSO: 10 Must-Follow Tumblrs for Science Lovers A handful of excellent space simulators use real astronomical data to re-create the known universe in three dimensions. Fly through the galaxy at ludicrous speeds, map out humanity's best hope for extrasolar colonization, or mess with physics to create your own cosmic recipes. Some of these simulations stick to our own solar system, while others push the boundaries of our cosmological projections, procedurally generating star systems far beyond our galactic neighborhood. If you take any of these for a spin, let us know in the comments where you traveled. Home. The Most Astounding Fact - Neil deGrasse Tyson.

The Scale of the Universe 2. 100,000 Stars. Instant Expert: Theory of everything. "The membrane at the end of the universe" by Michael Duff and Christine Sutton, New Scientist, 30 June 1988, p 67 "The theory formerly known as strings" by Michael Duff, Scientific American, February 1998, p 64 "The illusion of gravity" by Juan Maldacena, Scientific American, November 2005, p 56 The Elegant Universe: Superstrings, hidden dimensions and the quest for the ultimate theory by Brian Greene (Vintage, 2005) The Grand Design: New answers to the ultimate questions of life by Stephen Hawking and Leonard Mlodinow (Bantam Press, 2010)

Imagining the Tenth Dimension part 1 of 2. Imagining the Tenth Dimension. Imagining the Tenth Dimension - A Book by Rob Bryanton. Bad Astronomy. A new paper just published in the prestigious Astrophysical Journal makes a stunning claim: There are 10 times as many galaxies in the Universe as we previously thought. At least. The total number comes in at about 2 trillion of them. Now, let me be clear. This doesn’t meant the Universe is 10 times bigger than we thought, or there are 10 times as many stars. I’ll explain—I mean, duh, it’s what I do—but to cut to the chase, what they found is that there are lots of teeny, faint galaxies very far away that have gone undetected. So instead of being in a smaller number of big galaxies, stars are divvied up into a bigger number of smaller ones.

What the astronomers did was look at extremely deep images of the Universe taken in surveys, for example the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. That’s a lot of galaxies. Surveys like the UDF are limited. The astronomers who did this research had an interesting problem. The answer is two-fold. Those numbers change with distance. NASA,ESA, H. A whole lot. Welcome to the 11th Dimension The Elegant Universe PBS NOVA.