Life is short
An interpretation of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, represented as a pyramid with the more basic needs at the bottom [ 1 ] Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation". [ 2 ] Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity. His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology , some of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans. Maslow used the terms Physiological, Safety, Belongingness and Love, Esteem, Self-Actualization and Self-Transcendence needs to describe the pattern that human motivations generally move through.
Joseph John Campbell (March 26, 1904 – October 30, 1987) was an American mythologist , writer and lecturer , best known for his work in comparative mythology and comparative religion . His work is vast, covering many aspects of the human experience. His philosophy is often summarized by his phrase: "Follow your bliss." [ 1 ] [ edit ] Life [ edit ] Background Joseph Campbell was born and raised in White Plains , New York [ 2 ] in an upper middle class Irish Catholic family.
The Hero Archetype in Literature, Religion, and Popular Culture: http://tatsbox.com/hero/ (along with a useful PowerPoint presentation teachers can download at this URL: http://tatsbox.com/hero/powerpnt.htm ) Maricopa Center for Learning and Instruction (users embark on their own hero's journey): http://www.mcli.dist.maricopa.edu/smc/journey/ An American Masters Lesson from PBS for Teachers on George Lucas, the Power of Myth, and the Hero's Journey: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/lessons/george-lucas-and-the-power-of-myth/lesson-overview/1292/ And an interactive approach to the Hero's Journey: http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/interactives/herosjourney/ And of course, information about Joseph Campbell's works on the subject, on the Joseph Campbell Foundation site:
By Peter Tyson Posted 12.02.10 NOVA scienceNOW "Our planet, our society, and we ourselves are built of star stuff." —Carl Sagan, Cosmos
The Brain The human brain is the most complex and least understood part of the human anatomy. There may be a lot we don’t know, but here are a few interesting facts that we’ve got covered. Nerve impulses to and from the brain travel as fast as 170 miles per hour. Ever wonder how you can react so fast to things around you or why that stubbed toe hurts right away?
The Human Body The human body is made of some 50 trillion to 100 trillion cells, which form the basic units of life and combine to form more complex tissues and organs. Inside each cell, genes make up a “blueprint” for protein production that determines how the cell will function.
Very cool genetics site, probably the best on the web. by Jan 28
Determinism is a metaphysical philosophical position stating that for everything that happens there are conditions such that, given those conditions, nothing else could happen. "There are many determinisms, depending upon what pre-conditions are considered to be determinative of an event." [ 1 ] Deterministic theories throughout the history of philosophy have sprung from diverse motives and considerations, some of which overlap. Some forms of determinism can be tested empirically with ideas stemming from physics and the philosophy of physics . The opposite of determinism is some kind of indeterminism (otherwise called nondeterminism ). Determinism is often contrasted with free will . [ 2 ]
Free will is the ability of agents to make choices unconstrained by certain factors. Factors of historical concern have included metaphysical constraints (for example, logical, nomological, or theological determinism ), physical constraints (for example, chains or imprisonment), social constraints (for example, threat of punishment or censure, or structural constraints), and mental constraints (for example, compulsions or phobias, neurological disorders, or genetic predispositions). The principle of free will has religious , legal , ethical , and scientific implications. [ 1 ] For example, in the religious realm, free will implies that individual will and choices can coexist with an omnipotent divinity . In the law, it affects considerations of punishment and rehabilitation .
Viktor Emil Frankl, MD, PhD (26 March 1905 – 2 September 1997) [ 1 ] [ 2 ] was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist as well as a Holocaust survivor . Frankl was the founder of logotherapy , which is a form of existential analysis , the "Third Viennese School of Psychotherapy ". His best-selling book Man's Search for Meaning (published under a different title in 1959: From Death-Camp to Existentialism , and originally published in 1946 as Trotzdem Ja Zum Leben Sagen: Ein Psychologe erlebt das Konzentrationslager ) chronicles his experiences as a concentration camp inmate which led him to discover the importance of finding meaning in all forms of existence, even the most sordid ones, and thus a reason to continue living. Frankl became one of the key figures in existential therapy and a prominent source of inspiration for humanistic psychologists . [ 3 ]
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy , ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes "the moral worth of the individual ". [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Individualists promote the exercise of one's goals and desires and so value independence and self-reliance [ 3 ] while opposing external interference upon one's own interests by society or institutions such as the government. [ 3 ] Individualism makes the individual its focus [ 1 ] and so starts "with the fundamental premise that the human individual is of primary importance in the struggle for liberation." Liberalism , existentialism and anarchism are examples of movements that take the human individual as a central unit of analysis. [ 4 ] Individualism thus involves "the right of the individual to freedom and self-realization". [ 5 ]
People suffer extreme mental agony "merely" by being kept alone. The human being is designed to be be a social animal. That is why he is so susceptible to arguments based on "social fairness" or "envy" or "social status".
Callero, P.L. "Social Identity Theory" in Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology . George Ritzer (Ed.), Blackwell Publishing, 2006. D. Braa and P.L.
Medicine ( i / ˈ m ɛ d s ɨ n / , i / ˈ m ɛ d ɨ s ɨ n / ) is the applied science or practice of the diagnosis , treatment , and prevention of disease . [ 1 ] It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness in human beings . Contemporary medicine applies health science , biomedical research , and medical technology to diagnose and treat injury and disease, typically through medication or surgery , but also through therapies as diverse as psychotherapy , external splints & traction , prostheses , biologics , ionizing radiation and others. The word medicine is derived from the Latin ars medicina , meaning the art of healing . [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ edit ] Clinical practice
Culture ( Latin : cultura , lit. "cultivation") [ 1 ] is a modern concept based on a term first used in classical antiquity by the Roman orator , Cicero : "cultura animi" . The term "culture" appeared first in its current sense in Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries, to connote a process of cultivation or improvement, as in agriculture or horticulture . In the 19th century, the term developed to refer first to the betterment or refinement of the individual, especially through education , and then to the fulfillment of national aspirations or ideals . In the mid-19th century, some scientists used the term "culture" to refer to a universal human capacity. For the German nonpositivist sociologist Georg Simmel , culture referred to "the cultivation of individuals through the agency of external forms which have been objectified in the course of history". [ 2 ]
A society , or a human society , is a group of people related to each other through persistent relations, or a large social grouping sharing the same geographical or virtual territory, subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Human societies are characterized by patterns of relationships ( social relations ) between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions ; a given society may be described as the sum total of such relationships among its constituent members. In the social sciences , a larger society often evinces stratification and/or dominance patterns in subgroups. Insofar as it is collaborative , a society can enable its members to benefit in ways that would not otherwise be possible on an individual basis; both individual and social (common) benefits can thus be distinguished, or in many cases found to overlap.