Even though by saying so, the finding is that behavior is mainly determined by situational factors rather than individual personality hence bystander apathy is present in every individual.
Historical Development of Bystander Effect. The murder of "Kitty" Genovese that led to the Bystander Effect. Catherine “Kitty” Genovese was a 28-year-old woman who was brutally murdered outside of her Queens apartment in New York City on March 13, 1964.
Genovese’s attack lasted around 30 minutes as she was stabbed 14 times by a man named Winston Moseley. It was originally reported that there were 38 bystanders who turned their back on Genovese’s early morning cries for help, shutting their doors to silence her screams. Although that judgment was later proven to be inaccurate, the murder was considered the driving force behind our emergency 911 system today and the discovery of the term that so many psychologists are still researching: “The Bystander Effect.” It was around 3 o’clock in the morning when Genovese arrived home from managing a local bar where she worked. Brain regions affect one's behaviour. Question: Who should then help?
How to be an upstander? Theory of bystander intervention. Interesting fact on how individual motivation might help in reduction of bystander apathy. Importance of school teachers in cultivating one's moral values. Bystander effect: Training in skills makes people more willing to help, Letters in Print News.
How to counteract bystander effect in local context. A different perspective on bystander effect. Activity sheet for Bystander experiment.