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Microsoft Windows is a series of graphical interface operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft . Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985 as an add-on to MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUIs). [ 2 ] Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share , overtaking Mac OS , which had been introduced in 1984. The most recent client version of Windows is Windows 8 ; the most recent mobile client version is Windows Phone 8 ; the most recent server version is Windows Server 2012 . Version history The term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products.
The Linux kernel is the operating system kernel used by the Linux family of Unix-like operating systems . [ 8 ] It is a prominent example of free and open source software . [ 9 ] The Linux kernel is released under the GNU General Public License version 2 (GPLv2) [ 5 ] (plus some firmware images with various non-free licenses [ 7 ] ), and is developed by contributors worldwide. Day-to-day development discussions take place on the Linux kernel mailing list . The Linux kernel was initially conceived and created by Finnish computer science student Linus Torvalds in 1991. [ 10 ] Linux rapidly accumulated developers and users who adapted code from other free software projects for use with the new operating system. [ 11 ] The Linux kernel has received contributions from thousands of programmers. [ 12 ] Many Linux distributions have been released based upon the Linux kernel. [ edit ] History
Fedora ( pron.: / f ɨ ˈ d ɒr . ə / ), formerly Fedora Core , is an RPM -based, general purpose collection of software, including an operating system based on the Linux kernel , developed by the community-supported Fedora Project and owned by Red Hat . The Fedora Project's mission is to lead the advancement of free and open source software and content as a collaborative community. [ 4 ] One of Fedora's main objectives is not only to contain software distributed under a free and open source license, but also to be on the leading edge of such technologies. [ 5 ] [ 6 ] Fedora developers prefer to make upstream changes instead of applying fixes specifically for Fedora—this ensures that their updates are available to all Linux distributions . [ 7 ]
Debian ( pron.: / ˈ d ɛ b i ə n / ) is an operating system composed of software packages released as free and open source software primarily under the GNU General Public License along with other free software licenses. [ 5 ] Debian GNU/Linux , which includes the GNU OS tools and the Linux kernel , [ 6 ] is a popular and influential Linux distribution . [ 7 ] [ 8 ] [ 9 ] [ 10 ] It is distributed with access to repositories containing thousands of software packages ready for installation and use. Debian is known for relatively strict adherence to the philosophies of free software [ 11 ] as well as using collaborative software development and testing processes . [ 12 ] Debian can be used on a variety of hardware, from laptops and desktops to NAS devices, phones, and servers. It focuses on stability and security and is used as a base for many other distributions. [ edit ] Features Debian is known for an abundance of options.
Ubuntu ( / ʊ ˈ b ʊ n t uː / uu- BUUN -too ) [ 8 ] [ 9 ] is a computer operating system based on the Debian Linux distribution and distributed as free and open source software , using its own desktop environment . It is named after the Southern African philosophy of ubuntu ("humanity towards others") or another translation would be: "the belief in a universal bond of sharing that connects all humanity". [ 10 ] As of 2012, according to online surveys, Ubuntu is the most popular Linux distribution on desktop/laptop personal computers , [ 11 ] [ 12 ] [ 13 ] [ 14 ] and most Ubuntu coverage focuses on its use in that market. However, it is also popular on servers and for cloud computing . [ citation needed ]
is a computer operating system based on the Linux distribution Ubuntu . Linux Mint provides a more complete out of the box experience by including proprietary and patented software . [ 1 ] Linux Mint introduced its first release, named "Ada", in 2006. Its latest and 13th release is "Maya". [ edit ] History Linux Mint started in 2006 with a beta release called 1.0 "Ada".