A 13-hour laboratory school study of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in school-aged children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. This study demonstrated an onset of action for LDX at 1.5 hours (the first postdose time point measured), with duration of efficacy up to 13 hours postdose as assessed during the crossover treatment period.
The symptoms of ADHD may extend beyond the school day and continue into afterschool activities and family interactions. This trial is the first to demonstrate duration of efficacy up to 13 hours postdose compared with placebo for an approved oral ADHD stimulant medication and may provide an important treatment option for prolonged ADHD symptom control. ADHD candidate gene (DRD4 exon III) affects inhibitory control in a healthy sample. Advances in understanding and treating ADHD. A randomized controlled trial investigation of a non-stimulant in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ACTION): Rationale and design. Auditory temporal processing in healthy aging: a magnetoencephalographic study. Autistic children at risk of being underestimated: school-based pilot study of a strength-informed assessment.
Autistic childrena who reach school age with little or no spoken language, and thus acquire labels such as ‘nonverbal’ or ‘minimally verbal’, have recently attracted concern as a neglected subgroup in autism research .
Many such children are judged ‘low-functioning’ or ‘untestable’ through conventional assessments of cognitive abilities, on which they may not achieve even a basal score. Therefore, their potential is estimated to be extremely limited. At a time when very early development dominates autism research priorities [2,3] and is widely claimed to be determinative, the difficulties faced by autistic children so situated raise important concerns. Not only are they likely to be regarded and treated as though very low-functioning, they are in addition considered far too old for popular interventions to improve their outcomes .
We chose visual search [20,21] and embedded figures [22-24] tasks as the second and third tests in the pilot assessment. Brain classification reveals the right cerebellum as the best biomarker of dyslexia. Brain mapping and detection of functional patterns in fMRI using wavelet transform; application in detection of dyslexia. Description of dataset The fMRI data for both healthy and dyslexic subjects are collected using a 1.5-T General Electric echo-speed Horizon LX scanner with a birdcage head coil (GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI) by Radiology Department of Wake Forest University.
Ten fMRI scans are used for this study of which half are from healthy subjects and the rest belong to dyslexic patients. Data are collected with a word recognition stimulus, in which sixteen words are projected onto the screen for 32 seconds. A new set of words are shown to each subject every 2 seconds. No visual task is a state when the screen is blank. Figure 2. Comorbidity of Asperger's syndrome and bipolar disorder. Despite its increasing popularity as a distinct condition (included in the ICD-10 in 1993 and in the DSM-IV in 1994), the nosological status of Asperger's syndrome (AS) and its diagnostic validity remains uncertain.
An astonishing 556% increase in pediatric prevalence of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) has been reported between 1991 and 1997 . This jump is probably due to heightened awareness and changing diagnostic criteria rather than to new environmental influences. Both AS and autism persist into adulthood, but their phenotypic expression varies with age. AS may also be unrecognized in adulthood, although usually not forever. Developmental dyscalculia: Compensatory mechanisms in left intraparietal regions in response to nonsymbolic magnitudes. Behavior As regards behavioral data collected during scanning, overall accuracy rates were high (both groups > 90% correct) and comparable between groups (t(16) = .436; n.s.).
Likewise, group differences did not become significant as regards overall response latencies (t(16) = -1.366; n.s.). Both groups achieved the lowest error rates and quickest responses in the numerical task (Table 1). Although main effects of tasks were significant with respect to accuracy (F(1,16) = 7.681; p < .05) and reaction time (F(1,16) = 68.544; p < .001), the interactions group × task did not become significant (accuracy F(1,16) = .957; n.s.; reaction time F(1,16) = .522; n.s.) thus revealing comparable performance patterns between groups.
Early intervention: Bridging the gap between practice and academia. Prevention and early intervention have increasingly become a focus of basic and applied research in child and adolescent psychiatry.
In recent years, the emergent field of infant psychiatry has made significant progress. EEG complexity as a biomarker for autism spectrum disorder risk. Effects of non-pharmacological interventions on inflammatory biomarker expression in patients with fibromyalgia: a systematic review. We aimed to assess the effects of non-pharmacological interventions on biomarkers (specifically cytokines, neuropeptides, and CRP) in patients with FM.
Despite the importance of non-pharmacological interventions in FM patients, few studies have focused on changes to biomarkers after non-pharmacological intervention. In fact, to our knowledge, this is the first systematic review on this subject. We found only 12 articles that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. EMBalance - validation of a decision support system in the early diagnostic evaluation and management plan formulation of balance disorders in primary care: study protocol of a feasibility randomised controlled trial. EMBalance is a feasibility and/or proof-of-concept study.
It is designed as a non-commercial, international, multi-centre, single-blind, parallel-group randomised controlled trial (RCT) in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines  (see Additional file 1). The EMBalance study will be carried out simultaneously in the United Kingdom, Germany, Greece and Belgium. Both primary and tertiary care settings will be involved in these four countries. Table 1 provides the names of all participating clinical centres. Excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to left dorsal premotor cortex enhances motor consolidation of new skills.
Participants Thirty-two healthy, neurologically intact individuals aged 20 to 38 (14 men and 18 women) enrolled in the experiment (Table 1).
All participants gave written informed consent and the protocol was approved by the University research ethics board. Two participants were unable to complete the testing as a result of discomfort during initial motor thresholding with TMS. All participants reported to be right hand dominant; all received left sided rTMS. Participants were not enrolled if 1) they exhibited any frank or clinically evident signs of neurological impairment or disease , or 2) they had any color blindness that would impair response ability. Table 1. Behavioural task. Factors influencing work participation of adults with developmental dyslexia: a systematic review. Facts, values, and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): an update on the controversies. Fundamental principles by which the brain could process information: an information management perspective.
How autism symptoms could develop at the neuron level: an information management perspective. Insular cortex involvement in declarative memory deficits in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder. Late, not early mismatch responses to changes in frequency are reduced or deviant in children with dyslexia: an event-related potential study. The current study asked: Do children with dyslexia show differences in their mismatch responses to frequency deviants during the MMN time window using (1) conventional amplitude measures and (2) time-frequency analysis?
, and (3) is performance on any of these measures linked to behavioural measures of frequency discrimination, language, and literacy? We found that children with dyslexia did not differ from controls in their MMN responses to the frequency deviants and, surprisingly, that they showed greater levels of ITC (phase locking) in the time window corresponding to the MMN, particularly in the older group. In contrast, for the LDN time window, the younger children with dyslexia showed a smaller LDN response to small deviants, whilst the older children with dyslexia showed a reduction in their event-related desynchronization to frequency deviants over the same timescale, in the form of a less negative ERSP.
Memory in language-impaired children with and without autism. This study presents the first comparisons of language-related memory abilities among early school-age children (5–8 years) with SLI, ALI, and ALN. Our primary aim was to examine differences in patterns of NWR abilities between the three groups of children. Using the nonword repetition task , children with SLI produced significantly more phoneme errors compared to those with ALI in response to 2- and 3-syllable nonwords. These findings are consistent with recent research demonstrating greater impairments in nonword repetition abilities among children with SLI versus ALI [26, 27, 28], and suggests that, despite parallel impairments in core language as measured by the CELF standardized assessment, the cognitive or linguistic underpinnings of early language difficulties during the early school-age years may be distinct in children with SLI and ALI.
We also observed striking similarities between the three groups in terms of the effect of syllable length on NWR performance. Mimetic desire in autism spectrum disorder. We found that individuals with an ASD are prone to MD to a similar extent as individuals in the controls. We found no link between MD and anhedonia or social judgment associated with ASD. These results contradict the intuitive idea that the preferences of individuals with ASD are less prone to social influence. They contribute to the understanding of social influence in autism. Motor imagery training for children with developmental coordination disorder – study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) show motor performance that is substantially below expected levels, given the child’s chronologic age and previous opportunities for skill learning . The prevalence estimate for DCD is 5–6 % , and a prerequisite for a diagnosis DCD is that these problems with motor skills are significant enough to interfere with both social and academic functioning.
The etiology of DCD has been examined in several studies which reveal a number of viable hypotheses including reduced processing speed, problems in executive functioning, poor cross-model integration and poor perceptual-motor coupling (for review see ). In two recent systematic reviews [3, 4] this collective evidence was shown to reveal an underlying deficit in motor control and learning, linked to the predictive control of movements. Currently, three main professions provide treatment for children with DCD: occupational therapy, physical therapy and special education . Neurogenomics of speech and language disorders: the road ahead. In the near future, NGS methods will become standard tools in molecular studies of speech and language disorders. As noted above, gene discovery strategies will need to move beyond the de novo paradigms that have been so successful for ID and ASD. Researchers will be faced with the major challenge of discerning which of the many plausibly causal variants carried by each affected person are physiologically relevant to their speech and/or language impairments.
Fortunately, distinct fields combining computational and experimental methods can help ascertain the biological roles of detected variants and ultimately highlight genes important for our unique capacity for spoken language. When focusing on protein-coding sequences, after initial filtering of identified variants from NGS data, it is possible to use predictive algorithms such as SIFT  and PolyPhen2  to flag the most promising mutations for subsequent analyses.
Orthographic familiarity, phonological legality and number of orthographic neighbours affect the onset of ERP lexical effects. Behavioural data ANOVA performed on accuracy data (incorrect categorizations) revealed the significance of lexical class (F3,33 = 21.584; p < 0.001; eta2 = 0.662; F-crit = 2.89), showing a higher error percentage to words and quasi-words, incorrectly judged as meaningless and meaningful, respectively, (W = 6.69 %; QW = 4.42 %) than to pseudo-words and letter-strings, (PS = 1.07 %; LS = 0.51 %), as proofed by post-hoc comparisons (p < 0.001). Omissions were very few (W = 0.35%; QW = 0.525%; PS = 0.525%; LS = 0.875%) and they did not statistically differ across lexical classes, as shown by an ANOVA performed on misses percentages. ANOVA on the RTs revealed the effect of lexical class (F3,33 = 8.0639; p < 0.001; eta2 = 0.423; F-crit = 2.891), showing that RTs were most rapid to letter strings and slowest to quasi-words (W = 554; QW = 622; PS = 567; LS = 532 ms).
Electrophysiological data Posterior components. Phonological spelling errors in the writing of Greek dyslexic children: in support of the phonological deficit theory. Psychiatric and psychosocial problems in adults with normal-intelligence autism spectrum disorders. Large outcome studies or systematic clinical surveys of adult ASDs are few. To our knowledge, this is one of the first such studies presenting detailed clinical data on a large consecutive group of adults with ASDs and normal intelligence.
Recent advances in the genetics of language impairment. Relationship between cognitive function and prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation in adolescents. Participants Participants were recruited from 4th, 5th, and 6th grades of an elementary school and 7th, 8th, and 9th grades of a junior high school in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. Most of the students in the elementary school proceed on to the junior high school. Review of neuroimaging in Autism Spectrum Disorders: what have we learned and where we go from here.
Social (pragmatic) communication disorder: a research review of this new DSM-5 diagnostic category. Distinguishing pragmatic impairments from language disorders In the early 1980s, Rapin and Allen  introduced the term semantic-pragmatic deficit syndrome to characterize children who are overly verbose, demonstrate word finding difficulty, and have difficulty with conversation including poor topic maintenance. Similarly, Bishop and Rosenbloom  used the term semantic-pragmatic disorder to describe children who have difficulty understanding and following the rules of conversation and may use unusual language or word choice to communicate. However, it has been suggested that semantic deficits may not always co-occur with pragmatic deficits. Subcortical processing of speech regularities underlies reading and music aptitude in children.
Behavioral and Brain Functions20117:44 © Strait et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011 Received: 12 May 2011. The differential diagnosis of children with joint hypermobility: a review of the literature. Medline was searched using a strategy designed by a medical librarian to identify papers on the diagnosis of ligamentous laxity, hypermobility, hypermobility syndromes and related HDCT's (Figure 1). Duplicates were excluded and titles were hand searched. Papers which focused on joint stability following joint replacement surgery were excluded, leaving a total of 3330 papers.
The titles of papers that focused on a single joint were checked to determine which joints were most frequently the focus of published works but not further analysed. The ongoing dissection of the genetic architecture of autistic spectrum disorder. Top-down and bottom-up modulation in processing bimodal face/voice stimuli.