Researchers & Theories...
The Turing test might still be too hard for software to crack – but two programs have already aced video gaming's answer to this famous evaluation of machine intelligence. The two winning programs, or bots, relied on strategies of direct human mimicry to win an annual software tournament called BotPrize – and beat an intriguing rival based on a stripped-down model of human consciousness As in the original Turing test, BotPrize bots attempt to convince human judges that they too are human. But whereas Turing test bots are judged on their ability to converse, in BotPrize, it's the ability to play and navigate the 3D shoot-'em-up video game Unreal Tournament in a human-like manner that counts. Mimicry beats consciousness in gaming's Turing test - tech - 25 September 2012
Zygon Center for Religion and Science
International Consciousness Research Laboratories | Furthering the establishment of a Science of the Subjective ICRL is an international, interdisciplinary, and intergenerational consortium of some 75 members, most of whom have been associated with the Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research (PEAR) laboratory at Princeton University as interns or research collaborators over its thirty-year history. Our goal is to extend the work of PEAR into a broader range of inquiry: to encourage a new generation of creative investigators to expand the boundaries of scientific understanding; and to strengthen the foundations of science by reclaiming its spiritual heritage. Ultimately, we seek to integrate the subjective and objective dimensions of human experience into a self-reflective Science of the Subjective.
Figure 1: The Neuronal Correlates of Consciousness (NCC) are the minimal set of neural events and structures – here synchronized action potentials in neocortical pyramidal neurons – sufficient for a specific conscious percept or a conscious (explicit) memory. From Koch (2004). The Neural Correlates of Consciousness (NCC) can be defined as the minimal neuronal mechanisms jointly sufficient for any one specific conscious percept (Crick & Koch 1990). The Neurobiological Approach to Consciousness Neural correlates of consciousness
Chinese room The Chinese room is a thought experiment presented by John Searle in order to challenge the claim that it is possible for a digital computer running a program to have a "mind" and "consciousness" in the same sense that people do, simply by virtue of running the right program. According to Searle, when referring to a hypothetical computer program which can be told a story then answer questions about it: Partisans of strong AI claim that in this question and answer sequence the machine is not only simulating a human ability but also (1) that the machine can literally be said to understand the story and provide the answers to questions, and (2) that what the machine and its program do explains the human ability to understand the story and answer questions about it. In order to contest this view, Searle writes in his first description of the argument: "Suppose that I'm locked in a room and ... that I know no Chinese, either written or spoken".
Dan Dennett | Profile on TED.com
In the case of the Chinese Room argument, Dennett argues that the intuitive notion that a person manipulating symbols seems inadequate to constitute any form of consciousness ignores the requirements of memory, recall, emotion, world knowledge and rationality that the system would actually need to pass such a test. "Searle does not deny that programs can have all this structure, of course," Dennett says. "He simply discourages us from attending to it. But if we are to do a good job imagining the case, we are not only entitled but obliged to imagine that the program Searle is hand-simulating has all this structure — and more, if only we can imagine it. But then it is no longer obvious, I trust, that there is no genuine understanding of the joke going on." Intuition pump
Daniel Dennett Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Daniel Clement Dennett est un philosophe américain né le à Boston. C'est l'un des plus importants philosophes contemporains, en philosophie de l'esprit et en philosophie des sciences, et tout particulièrement en ce qui concerne les retombées de la théorie de l'évolution (Darwin's Dangerous Idea) et son refus dans quelques milieux religieux interprété à la lumière des sciences cognitives, ces dernières constituant son sujet de prédilection (Consciousness Explained, The Mind's "I", ...). Biographie[modifier | modifier le code] Ami de Richard Dawkins, il déclare cependant dans The Atheism Tapes (BBC) ne pas partager son avis sur l'intérêt de lutter contre les religions, estimant que Dawkins « sous-estime le désarroi qui s'emparerait d'une grande partie de la population » si elle devait affronter l'existence sans ce secours.
Core consciousness Developed in his (1999) book, 'The Feeling of What Happens', Antonio Damasio's three layered theory of consciousness is based on a hierarchy of stages, with each stage building upon the last. The most basic representation of the organism is referred to as the Protoself, next is Core Consciousness, and finally, Extended Consciousness. Damasio, who is an internationally recognized leader in neuroscience, was educated at the University of Lisbon and currently directs the University of Southern California Brain and Creativity Institute. Damasio's approach to explaining the development of consciousness relies on three notions: emotion, feeling, and feeling a feeling. Emotions are a collection of unconsicous neural responses to qualia. These complex reactions to stimuli cause observable external changes in the organism.
Consciousness Explained is a 1991 book by the American philosopher Daniel Dennett which offers an account of how consciousness arises from interaction of physical and cognitive processes in the brain. Synopsis The book puts forward a "multiple drafts" model of consciousness, suggesting that there is no single central place (a "Cartesian Theater") where conscious experience occurs; instead there are "various events of content-fixation occurring in various places at various times in the brain". The brain consists of a "bundle of semi-independent agencies"; when "content-fixation" takes place in one of these, its effects may propagate so that it leads to the utterance of one of the sentences that make up the story in which the central character is one's "self". Dennett's view of consciousness is that it is the apparently serial account for the brain's underlying parallelism. Consciousness Explained
La Conscience expliquée Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. La Conscience expliquée est un livre publié par Daniel Dennett en 1991, tentant d'expliquer ce qu'est la conscience et ses mécanismes en faisant largement appel aux sciences cognitives. La traduction française du livre, assurée par Pascal Engel, fut publiée aux Éditions Odile Jacob en 1993. En fondant son argumentation sur les connaissances récentes en informatique, en psychologie et en neurosciences, Dennett propose une théorie de la conscience qu'il baptise « modèle des versions multiples (en) ». Selon cette théorie des faits simples comme élaborer la prochaine phrase que l'on va énoncer ou faire un choix ne sont en réalité qu'un résultat obtenu au terme d'une compétition darwinienne.
Melanie Boly1,2,3*, Anil K. Seth4,5, Melanie Wilke6,7, Paul Ingmundson8, Bernard Baars9, Consciousness in humans and non-human animals: Recent advances and future directions. | Frontiers in Consciousness Research
Antonio Damasio (born February 25, 1944) is a Portuguese-American neuroscientist/neurobiologist. He is a University Professor and David Dornsife Professor of Neuroscience at the University of Southern California (where he also heads the Brain and Creativity Institute), an Adjunct Professor at the Salk Institute, and the author of several books describing his scientific thinking. "As a leading neuroscientist, Damasio has dared to speculate on neurobiological data, and has offered a theory about the relationship between human emotions, human rationality, and the underlying biology." Prior to joining USC in 2005, Damasio was M.W. Antonio Damasio
"We are conscious of something, on this model, when we have a thought about it. So a mental state will be conscious if it is accompanied by a thought about that state...The core of the theory, then is that a mental state is a conscious state when, and only when, it is accompanied by a suitable HOT [Higher Order Thought]" David M. Rosenthal, 'A Theory of Consciousness', The Nature of Consciousness (ed Block, Flanagan and Güzeldere), 1997 Definitions of consciousness.
The Mind Unleashed: 3 Censored TED Talks They Don't Want You To See The current establishment has plenty to gain by keeping the people of this planet in the dark about ideas that can lead to a revolution in human consciousness. It’s time to change that. 1. Graham Hancock – The War on Consciousness
The existence of a "hard problem" is controversial and has been disputed by some philosophers. Providing an answer to this question could lie in understanding the roles that physical processes play in creating consciousness and the extent to which these processes create our subjective qualities of experience. Several questions about consciousness must be resolved in order to acquire a full understanding of it. These questions include, but are not limited to, whether being conscious could be wholly described in physical terms, such as the aggregation of neural processes in the brain. Hard problem of consciousness
Several theorists have proposed that consciousness can be understood as an electromagnetic phenomenon. Their theories differ in how they relate consciousness to electromagnetism. For example, electromagnetic field theories (or "EM field theories") of consciousness propose that consciousness results when a brain produces an electromagnetic field with features that meet certain criteria; Susan Pockett and Johnjoe McFadden have proposed EM field theories; William Uttal has criticized McFadden's and other field theories. Some electromagnetic theories are also quantum mind theories of consciousness; examples include quantum brain dynamics (QBD) approaches of Mari Jibu and Kunio Yasue and of Giuseppe Vitiello. In general, however, quantum mind theories other than these QBD approaches do not treat consciousness as an electromagnetic phenomenon. Also related are E.
Consciousness Based on Wireless?
Our Conscious Mind Could Be An Electromagnetic Field
'Collision Course' in the Science of Consciousness: Grand Theories to Clash at Tucson Conference | Deepak Chopra
College of Letters, Arts, & Sciences :: Brain and Creativity Center
JCS, Journal of Consciousness Studies
Center for Consciousness Studies . Tucson . Arizona
dmoz Consciousness Studies
Santa Barbara Institute for Consciousness Studies
Archives Italiennes de Biologie
Take the Neuron Express for a brief tour of consciousness
Peter Russell - The Primacy of Consciousness (Excerpted)
Category:Consciousness researchers and theorists
Consciousness research and scientific studies on mind, brain, & soul - WIE.org
Vilayanur S. Ramachandran
The 8-Circuit Model of Consciousness
Level of consciousness (Esotericism)