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Kurdistan. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre.

Kurdistan

Le Kurdistan (signifiant littéralement « pays des Kurdes[1] » ; en kurde : Kurdewarî ou simplement Kurdistan (ce dernier étant plus usité), anciennement transcrit Gordyène ou Kardouchi, est une région géographique et culturelle d'Asie occidentale, majoritairement peuplée par les Kurdes. Cette région s'étend dans le sud-est de la Turquie, dans le nord-est de l'Irak, dans le nord-ouest de l'Iran et sur deux petites régions au nord-est et au nord-ouest de la Syrie[1]. Sur ces quatre pays, seuls deux reconnaissent officiellement une région sous la dénomination de « Kurdistan » : l'Iran avec sa province du Kurdistan et l'Irak avec sa région autonome du Kurdistan[1]. Étymologie[modifier | modifier le code] La région du Kurdistan est connue par plusieurs termes apparentés au mot Kurde au cours de l'Antiquité.

Chypre du Nord. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre.

Chypre du Nord

Pour les articles homonymes, voir Chypre. République turque de Chypre du Nord Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti (tr) Τουρκική Δημοκρατία της Βόρειας Κύπρου (el) Toutefois, depuis 2004, l'Organisation de la conférence islamique accorde à l’État turc de Chypre du Nord le statut d'observateur sous le nom d'« État turc de Chypre ».

Proche-Orient

Péninsule Arabique. Levant. The Levant (/ləˈvænt/; Arabic: المشرق /ʔal-maʃriq/[1][5][6][7][8][9][10]) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the eastern Mediterranean.

Levant

Mesopotamia. Map showing the extent of Mesopotamia Mesopotamia (from the Ancient Greek: Μεσοποταμία: "[land] between rivers"; Arabic: بلاد الرافدين‎ (bilād al-rāfidayn); Syriac: ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ (Beth Nahrain): "land of rivers") is a name for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, corresponding to modern-day Iraq, Kuwait, the northeastern section of Syria and to a much lesser extent southeastern Turkey and smaller parts of southwestern Iran.

Mesopotamia

Widely considered to be the cradle of civilization in the West, Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer and the Akkadian, Babylonian, and Assyrian empires, all native to the territory of modern-day Iraq. In the Iron Age, it was controlled by the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian empires. The indigenous Sumerians and Akkadians (including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia from the beginning of written history (c. 3100 BC) to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire. Etymology Geography History Periodization Literature. Anatolia. Coordinates: Anatolia (from Greek Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ — "east" or "(sun)rise"; in modern Turkish: Anadolu), in geography known as Asia Minor (from Greek: Μικρὰ Ἀσία Mīkrá Asía — "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of the Republic of Turkey.

Anatolia

The inhabitants of this region spoke Greek until the region was conquered first by the Seljuk Turks and later by the Ottoman Empire. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and the Aegean Sea to the west. The Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean Seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland.

Definition[edit] The traditional definition of Anatolia within modern Turkey[5][6] 1907 map of Asia Minor, showing the local ancient kingdoms Etymology[edit] In English the name of Turkey for ancient Anatolia first appeared c. 1369. Iran. Iran (/aɪˈræn/[10] or i/ɪˈrɑːn/;[11] Persian: ایران‎‎ [ʔiːˈɾɑn]), also known as Persia (/ˈpɜrʒə/ or /ˈpɜrʃə/),[12][13][14] officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.[15][16][17] It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia, the de facto independent Nagorno-Karabakh Republic and Azerbaijan; with Kazakhstan and Russia across the Caspian Sea; to the northeast by Turkmenistan; to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan; to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman; and to the west by Turkey and Iraq.

Iran

Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest nation in the Middle East and the 18th-largest in the world. With 78.4 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 17th most populous nation.[15][18] It is the only country that has both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline. Iran has long been of geostrategic importance because of its central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz.

Middle East. The Middle East[note 1] (also called the Mid East) is a eurocentric description of a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia and Egypt.

Middle East

Moyen-Orient. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre.

Moyen-Orient

Le Moyen-Orient (en anglais Middle East, en arabe الشرق الأوسط Ash-Shark al-awssat, en persan خاور ميانه, en turc Orta Doğu, en kurde Rojhilata Navîn, en hébreu המזרח התיכון) est une expression d'origine anglo-saxonne qui désigne, pour les Européens, les Américains et les Africains, une région comprise entre la rive orientale de la mer Méditerranée et la ligne tracée par la frontière entre l'Iran d'une part, le Pakistan et l'Afghanistan d'autre part.

Cette région se trouve essentiellement en Asie mais est parfois étendue à l'Afrique du Nord.