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Planetary habitability. Understanding planetary habitability is partly an extrapolation of the Earth's conditions, as this is the only planet currently known to support life.

Planetary habitability

Planetary habitability is the measure of a planet's or a natural satellite's potential to develop and sustain life. Life may develop directly on a planet or satellite or be transferred to it from another body, a theoretical process known as panspermia. As the existence of life beyond Earth is currently uncertain, planetary habitability is largely an extrapolation of conditions on Earth and the characteristics of the Sun and Solar System which appear favourable to life's flourishing—in particular those factors that have sustained complex, multicellular organisms and not just simpler, unicellular creatures. Research and theory in this regard is a component of planetary science and the emerging discipline of astrobiology.

Suitable star systems[edit] Terraforming. An artist's conception shows a terraformed Mars in four stages of development.


Terraforming (literally, "Earth-shaping") of a planet, moon, or other body is the theoretical process of deliberately modifying its atmosphere, temperature, surface topography or ecology to be similar to the biosphere of Earth to make it habitable by Earth-like life. The term "terraforming" is sometimes used more generally as a synonym for planetary engineering, although some consider this more general usage an error. [citation needed] The concept of terraforming developed from both science fiction and actual science. The term was coined by Jack Williamson in a science-fiction story (Collision Orbit) published during 1942 in Astounding Science Fiction,[1] but the concept may pre-date this work. History of scholarly study[edit] In March 1979, NASA engineer and author James Oberg organized the First Terraforming Colloquium, a special session at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in Houston.

Mars[edit] Mars Science Laboratory. What's^New?

Mars Science Laboratory

Mars Exploration Program Director Named - 11/21/2014 Second Time Through, Mars Rover Examines Chosen Rocks NEW: Curiosity Daily Updates from Science Team Members Newest NASA Mars Orbiter Demonstrates Relay Prowess. Home - Mars One. Terraforming of Mars. Artist's conception of the process of terraforming Mars.

Terraforming of Mars

The terraforming of Mars is the hypothetical process by which Martian climate, surface, and known properties would be deliberately changed with the goal of making large areas of the environment more hospitable to human habitation, thus making human colonization much safer and more sustainable. The concept relies on the assumption that the environment of a planet can be altered through artificial means. In addition, the feasibility of creating a planetary biosphere on Mars is undetermined. There are several proposed methods, some of which present prohibitive economic and natural resource costs, and others that may be currently technologically achievable.[1] Motivation and ethics[edit] Future population growth and demand for resources may necessitate human colonization of objects other than Earth, such as Mars, the Moon, and nearby planets. The Mars Homestead Project - Arrive, Survive, & Thrive!™ Astrobiology.

Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe: extraterrestrial life and life on Earth.


This interdisciplinary field encompasses the search for habitable environments in our Solar System and habitable planets outside our Solar System, the search for evidence of prebiotic chemistry, laboratory and field research into the origins and early evolution of life on Earth, and studies of the potential for life to adapt to challenges on Earth and in outer space.[2] Astrobiology addresses the question of whether life exists beyond Earth, and how humans can detect it if it does.[3] (The term exobiology is similar but more specific — it covers the search for life beyond Earth, and the effects of extraterrestrial environments on living things.)[4] Overview[edit]

The Origin and Evolution of Life in the Universe. Predicting what extra-terrestrials will be like: and preparing for the worst. 1.

Predicting what extra-terrestrials will be like: and preparing for the worst

Introduction. The Kardashev Scale – Type I, II, III, IV & V Civilization. Theorists assert that, as a civilization grows larger and becomes more advanced, its energy demands will increase rapidly due to its population growth and the energy requirements of its various machines.

The Kardashev Scale – Type I, II, III, IV & V Civilization

With this in mind, the Kardashev scale was developed as a way of measuring a civilization’s technological advancement based upon how much usable energy it has at its disposal. Credit: Chris Cold.


The Origin and Evolution of Life in the Universe. Astrobiology Web. COSPAR Home Page. Stellar engine. Stellar engines are a class of hypothetical megastructures which use a star's radiation to create usable energy.

Stellar engine

Some variants use this energy to produce thrust, and thus accelerate a star, and anything orbiting it, in a given direction. The creation of such a system would make its builders a Type-II civilization on the Kardashev scale. There are three variant classes of this idea. Class A (Shkadov thruster)[edit] Class B[edit] Astrobiology: The Living Universe - Main Page. Kardashev scale. The Kardashev scale is a method of measuring a civilization's level of technological advancement, based on the amount of energy a civilization is able to utilize.

Kardashev scale

The scale has three designated categories called Type I, II, and III. A Type I civilization uses all available resources impinging on its home planet, Type II harnesses all the energy of its star, and Type III of its galaxy. Type 1. Multiverse. The multiverse (or meta-universe) is the hypothetical set of infinite or finite possible universes (including the Universe we consistently experience) that together comprise everything that exists: the entirety of space, time, matter, and energy as well as the physical laws and constants that describe them.


The various universes within the multiverse are sometimes called parallel universes or "alternate universes". The structure of the multiverse, the nature of each universe within it and the relationships among the various constituent universes, depend on the specific multiverse hypothesis considered. Multiple universes have been hypothesized in cosmology, physics, astronomy, religion, philosophy, transpersonal psychology, and fiction, particularly in science fiction and fantasy. The multiverse hypothesis is a source of debate within the physics community. Multiverse hypotheses in physics[edit] Brian Greene: Is our universe the only universe?

Drake Vs Fermi...

Drake equation. We could spot alien civilizations from the light of their cities. Idées du nombre d'Exoplanètes découvertes. | Français | English | Italiano | Polski | The Possibility of Alien Life Is Now (Almost) Impossible to Deny. Big Picture Science. Planetary Habitability Laboratory @ UPR Arecibo. L'Encyclopédie des Planètes Extrasolaires. Kepler's Exoplanets Visualized. Super-Earths? Hot-Jupiters? Habitable zones, sun-like stars, Earth-like planets? Astronomers Have Found the First Earth-Sized, Habitable Zone Planet.

Cosmoquest. The Planetary Society. Les exoplanètes. NSRC 2012. Exopolanets.jpg (Image JPEG, 1920x1280 pixels) - Redimensionnée (63%) Exoplanet Atlas full of errors – VisualJournalism. When you do graphics for print in Wired – and then post on your blog about the process – stressing how much attention you pay to the details, then you’re asking for it. Sorry, David McCandless … (Click the graphic for full-size at Wired and read the blogpost at information is beautiful here) Your Exoplanet Atlas is full of errors. According to your own description, you have three designers and three researchers working on the project for nine months doing 26 drafts, and yet it takes only a very simple check-up to realize, that this Atlas is not to be trusted. My advice – Get a proofreader with infographic knowledge and hopefully you’ll put out an error-free graphic next time.

I’m sure you’ll agree, that information not only has to be beautiful – it also has to be correct: 1. 2. Space Colonization. Space colonization (also called space settlement, or extraterrestrial colonization) is permanent human habitation that is not on Earth. Many arguments have been made for space colonization. Welcome to the NASA Exoplanet Archive. Les exoplanètes de Kepler réunies. Cette simulation regroupe les quelque 2 229 candidats exoplanètes découvertes par le satellite américain Kepler autour d'une étoile de la taille du Soleil (cette liste exclut les faux positifs avérés et les planètes en orbite autour de deux étoiles).

Ces planètes ont été mises à l'échelle par rapport au rayon de leur étoile hôte (le rayon orbital et la taille d'une planète dont l'étoile est n fois plus petite que le Soleil sont agrandis d'un facteur n). Leur couleur correspond à leur température estimée, qui varie de -110 à 4500 °C (du bleu vers le rouge). Les orbites des planètes internes du Système solaire – Mercure, Vénus, la Terre et Mars – sont visibles à mesure que le champ s'élargit. Presque toutes les candidates se situent à l'intérieur de l'orbite de Mercure ! What our civilization needs is a billion-year plan. Odyssespace: l'astronomie sous toutes ses formes.

Largest-Ever Simulation of the Universe Revealed. Back in 1970, Jim Peebles at Princeton University carried out a ground-breaking experiment. Embryo space colonization. Self-replicating spacecraft. The idea of self-replicating spacecraft has been applied — in theory — to several distinct "tasks". The particular variant of this idea applied to the idea of space exploration is known as a von Neumann probe. Living Universe Foundation. Space News From SpaceDaily.Com. The Future. Headlines. Extraterrestrial Life.

The official U.S. government position on extraterrestrial life and the three major efforts to search for it. Clockwise from top left: Noogenesis. Ancient astronauts. Ancient astronauts or ancient aliens[1] is a pseudo-scientific hypothesis that posits intelligent extraterrestrial beings have visited Earth and made contact with humans in antiquity and prehistory.[2] Proponents suggest that this contact influenced the development of human cultures, technologies, and religions. A common claim is that deities from most, if not all, religions are actually extraterrestrial in nature, and that such visitors' advanced technologies were wrongly understood by primitive men as evidence of divine status.[3][4] BuildTheEnterprise. 100 Year Starship

Stanford torus. Exterior view of a Stanford torus. Actualités. Dyson Spheres: The Ultimate Energy Shell Game. STANTRUS.jpg (Image JPEG, 1600x1190 pixels) - Redimensionnée (67%)