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Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St. Alban , [ a ] Kt. , KC (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, and author. He served both as Attorney General and Lord Chancellor of England.
The birthplace of Hegel in Stuttgart , which now houses The Hegel Museum
John Locke FRS ( pron.: / ˈ l ɒ k / ; 29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704), widely known as the Father of Classical Liberalism , [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers. Considered one of the first of the British empiricists , following the tradition of Francis Bacon , he is equally important to social contract theory.
Anthony Clifford Grayling (born 3 April 1949) is an English philosopher. In 2011 he founded and became the first Master of New College of the Humanities , an independent undergraduate college in London. Until June 2011, he was Professor of Philosophy at Birkbeck, University of London , where he taught from 1991.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell , OM , FRS [ 1 ] (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher , logician , mathematician , historian , and social critic . [ 2 ] At various points in his life he considered himself a liberal , a socialist , and a pacifist , but he also admitted that he had never been any of these in any profound sense. [ 3 ] He was born in Monmouthshire , into one of the most prominent aristocratic families in Britain. [ 4 ] Russell led the British "revolt against idealism " in the early 20th century. [ 5 ] He is considered one of the founders of analytic philosophy along with his predecessor Gottlob Frege and his protégé Ludwig Wittgenstein . He is widely held to be one of the 20th century's premier logicians. [ 2 ] He co-authored, with A.
Mochus ( Greek : Μωχός ) a Phoenician , is listed, along with Zalmoxis and Atlas , by Diogenes Laërtius as a proto-philosopher. [ 1 ] Athenaeus claimed that he authored a work on the history of Phoenicia . [ 2 ] Strabo , on the authority of Posidonius , speaks of one Mochus or Moschus of Sidon as the author of the atomic theory and says that he was more ancient than the Trojan war . [ 3 ] He is also referred to by Josephus , [ 4 ] Tatian , [ 5 ] and Eusebius . [ 6 ]
Karl Wilhelm Friedrich von Schlegel Karl Wilhelm Friedrich (later: von ) Schlegel (10 March 1772 – 12 January 1829) was a German poet , critic and scholar.
John Stuart Mill , FRSE (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher , political economist and civil servant.
René Descartes ( French: [ʁəne dekaʁt] ; Latinized : Renatus Cartesius ; adjectival form : "Cartesian"; [ 6 ] 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and writer who spent most of his adult life in the Dutch Republic . He has been dubbed the 'Father of Modern Philosophy', and much subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, [ 7 ] [ 8 ] which are studied closely to this day.
Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbs of Malmsbury , [ 1 ] was an English philosopher, best known today for his work on political philosophy . His 1651 book Leviathan established the foundation for most of Western political philosophy from the perspective of social contract theory. [ 2 ]
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche ( / ˈ n iː tʃ ə / [ 42 ] or / ˈ n i tʃ i / ; [ 43 ] German: [ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈniːt͡sʃə] ; October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) was a German philosopher , poet , composer , cultural critic , and classical philologist . He wrote critical texts on religion, morality, contemporary culture, philosophy, and science, displaying a fondness for metaphor , irony , and aphorism . Nietzsche's key ideas include the " death of God ," the Übermensch , the eternal recurrence , the Apollonian and Dionysian dichotomy, perspectivism , and the will to power .
Karl Heinrich Marx ( German pronunciation: [kaːɐ̯l ˈhaɪnʀɪç ˈmaːɐ̯ks] , 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a Prussian - German philosopher and revolutionary socialist .
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian - British philosopher who worked primarily in logic , the philosophy of mathematics , the philosophy of mind , and the philosophy of language . [ 1 ] He was professor in philosophy at the University of Cambridge from 1939 until 1947. [ 2 ] In his lifetime, he published just one book review, one article, a children's dictionary, and the 75-page Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (1921). [ 3 ] In 1999, his posthumously published Philosophical Investigations (1953) was ranked as the most important book of 20th-century philosophy by the Baruch Poll, standing out as "...the one crossover masterpiece in twentieth-century philosophy, appealing across diverse specializations and philosophical orientations". [ 4 ] Philosopher Bertrand Russell described him as "the most perfect example I have ever known of genius as traditionally conceived, passionate, profound, intense, and dominating". [ 5 ]
Immanuel Kant ( German: [ɪˈmaːnu̯eːl kant] ; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher.
Martin Heidegger ( German: [ˈmaɐ̯tiːn ˈhaɪdɛɡɐ] ; September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) was a German philosopher known for his existential and phenomenological explorations of the "question of Being ". [ 4 ]