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Muslims in Europe

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Belgian ban on full veils comes into force. 23 July 2011Last updated at 16:14 MPs voted to ban veils on the grounds of security A law has come into force in Belgium banning women from wearing the full Islamic veil in public. The country is the second European Union nation after France to enforce such a ban. Offenders face a fine of 137.5 euros (£121; $197) and up to seven days in jail.

Two women who wear full veils launched an immediate court challenge, saying the law is discriminatory. France, home to Europe's biggest Muslim population, enforced its ban in April. Belgium's law bans any clothing that obscures the identity of the wearer in places like parks and on the street. It was passed almost unanimously by the lower house of parliament in April 2010.

MPs voted with only two abstentions to back the legislation on the grounds of security, to allow police to identify people. Other MPs said that full face veils such as the burka or the niqab were a symbol of the oppression of women. Study: Muslims in Europe Sense Growing Discrimination. The recent Swiss referendum vote to ban the building of minarets seemed to confirm a trend: Europeans are becoming increasingly strident in their attempts to "protect" their culture against Islam. However, a newly published report by the Open Society Institute (OSI), a think tank set up by billionaire financier and philanthropist George Soros, details the complex relationship between Muslims and non-Muslim Europeans and reveals that the suspicion is mutual. Muslims believe they are being shut out of European society. About 20 million Muslims live in the European Union, mostly in capital cities and large industrial towns; they already make up 25% of the population in Marseilles, France, and Rotterdam in the Netherlands; 20% in Malmö, Sweden; 15% in Brussels and Birmingham, England; and 10% in London, Paris and Copenhagen.

The findings echo earlier research revealing hostility toward Muslims and other minority groups. But the levels vary. Many factors are thought to be behind this. Muslims in Europe dogged by bias, Amnesty says. Amnesty International says Swiss Constitution "targeted Muslims with the prohibition of the construction of minarets" The report focuses on Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Spain and SwitzerlandPolitical parties "are all too often pandering" to political biases, the report saysThe September 11, 2001, attacks have contributed to hostility against MuslimsMuslims make up less than 10 percent of the population in European countries (CNN) -- Muslims in Europe face discrimination in education, employment and religious freedom, an Amnesty International report said.

"Muslim women are being denied jobs and girls prevented from attending regular classes just because they wear traditional forms of dress, such as the headscarf. Men can be dismissed for wearing beards associated with Islam," said Marco Perolini, Amnesty International's expert on discrimination. "Wearing religious and cultural symbols and dress is part of the right of freedom of expression. Muslims in Europe face discrimination: Amnesty. Amnest­y urges Europe­an govern­ments to do more to challe­nge negati­ve stereo­types and prejud­ices agains­t Islam. Amnesty urges European governments to do more to challenge negative stereotypes and prejudices against Islam.

LONDON: European countries are discriminating against Muslims for demonstrating their faith, especially in the fields of education and employment, rights group Amnesty International said Tuesday. In a report focusing on Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Spain, and Switzerland, Amnesty urged European governments to do more to challenge negative stereotypes and prejudices against Islam. The report was particularly critical of countries that have brought in outright bans on face-covering veils or on the wearing of religious symbols in schools. “Rather than countering these prejudices, political parties and public officials are all too often pandering to them in their quest for votes,” said Marco Perolini, Amnesty International’s expert on discrimination.

Five European Countries Slammed for Discrimination Against Muslims. Muslims in Europe are facing growing discrimination for their religious beliefs, not only by ordinary Europeans but also by governments and politicians. That is the assessment of rights group Amnesty International in a new report released Tuesday. In some parts of Europe, Muslim women and girls who wear headscarves are having a hard time finding jobs or going to school.

Men can be fired from work because they wear beards. And Muslim communities sometimes have little say in key issues that affect their faith - like building a prayer hall. These are among a series of findings in Amnesty International's first comprehensive report on religious discrimination against Muslims in Europe. Marco Perolini, Amnesty's expert on discrimination in Europe, said, "In recent years, we observed a rising of stereotypes and prejudices on Islam and Muslims in Europe, and in particular put forward only only by part of civil society but also by governments and politicians. " Digital Arabs: Representation in Video Games | Digital Islam. Fig. 1. Battle in Sadr City (Kuma, LLC, 2004). Author's note This article has been published by SAGE in 2008.

Its final version can be found here. The following text is my final submission to the editors. Introduction The term 'representation' refers to the construction of meaning through symbols and images. Whether images (or language) are a faithful, mimetic mirror of reality thereby offering some unmediated truth about the world, or conversely whether images are a separate, constructed medium thereby standing apart from the world in a separate semantic zone. According to Galloway (2004), the discursive, or visual or textual representation of meaning is no longer sufficient in game studies. In-game representations of Arabs and Muslims have to be contextualized in a broader narrative structure that covers Islam as it appears in news and popular media (Karim, 2006; Pintak, 2006; Poole, 2006; Said, 1997; Shaheen, 2000; Wingfield and Karaman, 2002).

Orientalism in the Digital Age Fig. 2. Muslims in the European Union: Discrimination and Islamophobia. Muslims discriminated against for demonstrating their faith.