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Grounded theory method (GT) is a systematic methodology in the social sciences involving the discovery of theory through the analysis of data. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] It is mainly used in qualitative research , but is also applicable to quantitative data. [ 3 ] Grounded theory method is a research method which operates almost in a reverse fashion from traditional social science research. Rather than beginning with a hypothesis, the first step is data collection, through a variety of methods.
Cultural studies is an academic field of critical theory and literary criticism initially introduced by British academics in 1964 and subsequently adopted by allied academics throughout the world. Characteristically interdisciplinary, cultural studies is an academic discipline aiding cultural researchers who theorize about the forces from which the whole of humankind construct their daily lives. Cultural Studies is not a unified theory, but a diverse field of study encompassing many different approaches, methods and academic perspectives. Distinct from the breadth, objective and methodology of cultural anthropology and ethnic studies , cultural studies is focussed upon the political dynamics of contemporary culture and its historical foundations, conflicts and defining traits.
Epistemology ( i / ɨ ˌ p ɪ s t ɨ ˈ m ɒ l ə dʒ i / from Greek ἐπιστήμη - epistēmē , meaning "knowledge, understanding", and λόγος - logos , meaning "study of") is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge . [ 1 ] [ 2 ] It questions what knowledge is, how it is acquired, and the possible extent to which a given subject or entity can be known. Much of the debate in this field has focused on analyzing the nature of knowledge and how it relates to connected notions such as truth , belief , and justification . The term was introduced by the Scottish philosopher James Frederick Ferrier (1808–1864). [ 3 ] The field is sometimes referred to as the theory of knowledge . [ edit ] Knowledge
Hermeneutics ( / h ɜr m ə ˈ n j uː t ɪ k s / ), broadly, is the art of text interpretation. Traditional hermeneutics is the study of the interpretation of written texts, especially texts in the areas of literature, religion and law. A type of traditional hermeneutic is biblical hermeneutics which concerns the study of the interpretation of the Bible . In religious studies and social philosophy , hermeneutics is the study of the theory and practice of interpretation .
sydney3000, on 25 May 2010 - 03:37 AM, said: Why would you stick thousands into a physical element that requires continuous inflow of money just to retain value? This is just another homeowner scheme to suck in the poor. Charles Bukowski, on 25 May 2010 - 08:00 AM, said: But if you don't own the land then all you have is an assett depreciating. Where is the return?
Complete spatial randomness (CSR) describes a point process whereby point events occur within a given study area in a completely random fashion. Such a process is often modeled using only one parameter, i.e. the density of points, within the defined area.
In social psychology , propinquity (from Latin propinquitas , "nearness") is one of the main factors leading to interpersonal attraction . It refers to the physical or psychological proximity between people. Propinquity can mean physical proximity, a kinship between people, or a similarity in nature between things (" like-attracts-like "). Two people living on the same floor of a building, for example, have a higher propinquity than those living on different floors, just as two people with similar political beliefs possess a higher propinquity than those whose beliefs strongly differ. Propinquity is also one of the factors, set out by Jeremy Bentham , used to measure the amount of ( utilitarian ) pleasure in a method known as felicific calculus .
Heterotopia is a concept in human geography elaborated by philosopher Michel Foucault to describe places and spaces that function in non- hegemonic conditions. These are spaces of otherness , which are neither here nor there, that are simultaneously physical and mental, such as the space of a phone call or the moment when you see yourself in the mirror. A utopia is an idea or an image that is not real but represents a perfected version of society, such as Thomas More’s book or Le Corbusier ’s drawings. Foucault uses the term heterotopia to describe spaces that have more layers of meaning or relationships to other places than immediately meet the eye.
Megan Willams (journalist), ... Objectivity does not exist (especially for journalists)... interviewed in Varanasi in December 2010 by Vrinda Dar Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to reality and truth , which has been variously defined by sources.
The term nostalgia describes a sentimentality for the past, typically for a period or place with happy personal associations. [ 1 ] The word is a learned formation of a Greek compound, consisting of νόστος ( nóstos ), meaning "homecoming", a Homeric word, and ἄλγος ( álgos ), meaning "pain, ache". It was described as a medical condition, a form of melancholy , in the Early Modern period , and became an important trope in Romanticism . [ 1 ] Nostalgia, in its most common form, was responsible for the old front desk of The Beverly Hills Hotel (from 1942 to 1979) being made into a bar. In common, less clinical usage, nostalgia sometimes includes a general interest in past eras and their personalities and events, especially the "good old days," such as a sudden image, or remembrance of something from one's childhood. The scientific literature on nostalgia is quite thin, but there are a few studies that have attempted to pin down the essence of nostalgia, and what causes it.
Complexity management is a business methodology that deals with the analysis and optimization of complexity in enterprises. Effects of complexity pertain to all business processes along the value chain and hence complexity management requires a holistic approach. Effective complexity management is based on four pillars: a sound strategy alignment with the overall company strategy, transparency over all costs and values of complexity, an approach which identifies the optimization benefits, related measures and management of the trade-offs between the total value chain functions, and finally ensurement of the sustainable infrastructure such as IT tools, incentives and processes. Complexity management recently emerged at top of the agenda due to new technology enablement, leading to detailed analytics and simulation of complexity optimization measures and their related domino effects within the entire value chain.
Homogeneity and heterogeneity are concepts relating to the uniformity in a substance. A material that is homogeneous is uniform in composition or character; one that is heterogeneous is distinctly nonuniform in one of these qualities. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] The concepts are the same to every level of complexity, from atoms to populations of animals or people , and galaxies [ clarification needed ] .
The graph illustrates how exponential growth (green) surpasses both linear (red) and cubic (blue) growth. Exponential growth Linear growth
Figure 1. Basic fractal patterns increasing in lacunarity from left to right. The same images as above, rotated 90°. Whereas the first two images appear essentially the same as they do above, the third looks different from its unrotated original. This feature is captured in measures of lacunarity listed across the top of the figures, as calculated using standard biological imaging box counting software ImageJ (FracLac plugin) .
An adaptation in biology is a trait with a current functional role in the life history of an organism that is maintained and evolved by means of natural selection . An adaptation refers to both the current state of being adapted and to the dynamic evolutionary process that leads to the adaptation. Adaptations contribute to the fitness and survival of individuals. Organisms face a succession of environmental challenges as they grow and develop and are equipped with an adaptive plasticity as the phenotype of traits develop in response to the imposed conditions. The developmental norm of reaction for any given trait is essential to the correction of adaptation as it affords a kind of biological insurance or resilience to varying environments.