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Retheorising mobility and the formation of culture and language among the corded ware culture in europe. Citi® 1 Terms & ConditionsIntroductory rate of 0% for 21 months from date of account opening on purchases and an introductory rate of 0% for 21 months from date of first transfer for balance transfers.


Balance transfers must be completed within 4 months of account opening. After the introductory period ends, the standard purchase APR will be applied to unpaid introductory balances, new purchases and new balance transfers. The standard variable APR for purchases is 12.49% - 22.49%, based on your creditworthiness. Standard variable cash advance APR – 25.74%. Variable Penalty APR up to 29.99% and applies if you pay late or your payment is returned. 2 FICO is a registered trademark of Fair Issac Corporation in the United States and other countries. ©2017 Citibank, N.A. The End of Christendom by Eamon Duffy. Reformations: The Early Modern World, 1450–1650 by carlos m. n. eire yale, 920 pages, $40 Next year marks the fifth centenary of one of the few precisely datable historical events that can be said to have changed the world forever.

The End of Christendom by Eamon Duffy

In 1517, an unknown German professor from an undistinguished new university protested against the sordid trade in religious benefits known as “indulgences,” which were then being peddled around Germany to fund grandiose plans to rebuild St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. Ordines Militares. Colloquia Torunensia Historica. Rough Timeline of the Templar Order. Some dates approximate. 1023 Bl.

Rough Timeline of the Templar Order

A Day in Pompeii - Full-length animation. Two Thomisms: Reflections on the Centenary of Pius X's Letter against the Modernists. EXCLUSIVE: France 'Suppressed News of Gruesome Torture' at Bataclan Massacre. By Louise Mensch | 10:50 am, July 15, 2016 HEAT STREET EXCLUSIVE – A French government committee has heard testimony, suppressed by the French government at the time and not published online until this week, that the killers in the Bataclan appear to have tortured their victims on the second floor of the club.

EXCLUSIVE: France 'Suppressed News of Gruesome Torture' at Bataclan Massacre

The chief police witness in Parliament testified that on the night of the attacks, an investigating officer, tears streaming down his face, rushed out of the Bataclan and vomited in front of him just after seeing the disfigured bodies. The 14-hour testimony about the November attacks took place March 21st. According to this testimony, Wahhabist killers reportedly gouged out eyes, castrated victims, and shoved their testicles in their mouths. They may also have disemboweled some poor souls. The Religion of Adam – The Orthosphere. What we now call the Christian religion existed amongst the ancients, and was from the beginning of the human race, until Christ Himself came in the flesh; from which time the already existing true religion began to be styled Christian.— Saint Augustine, Retractationes, I, xiii, 3 Most modern historians of religion disagree with Augustine.

The Religion of Adam – The Orthosphere

The very title of Religion in Human Evolution, the recent magisterial magnum opus of that archon of latter day sociology of religion, the late Robert N. Bellah, aptly indicates their perfectly contrary hypothesis: that monotheism is a late development in a long process of evolution from early and metaphysically confused animism, nature worship, magic, ancestor worship, or the like. Their presumption seems to be that early man was rather dim, compared to themselves, and that any abstract notion he had not derived rather immediately from the rudimentary components of his everyday life was quite beyond him. But this is of course only a prejudice. An Ancient Device Too Advanced to Be Real Gives Up Its Secrets at Last. Though it it seemed to be just a corroded lump of some sort when it was found in a shipwreck off the coast of Greece near Antikythera in 1900, in 1902 archaeologist Valerios Stais, looking at the gear embedded in it, guessed that what we now call the “Antikythera mechanism” was some kind of astronomy-based clock.

An Ancient Device Too Advanced to Be Real Gives Up Its Secrets at Last

He was in the minority—most agreed that something so sophisticated must have entered the wreck long after its other 2,000-year-old artifacts. Nothing like it was believed to have existed until 1,500 years later. In 1951, British historian Derek J. de Solla Price began studying the find, and by 1974 he had worked out that it was, in fact, a device from 150 to 100 BC Greece. He realized it used meshing bronze gears connected to a crank to move hands on the device’s face in accordance with the Metonic cycle, the 235-month pattern that ancient astronomers used to predict eclipses. 5 Confirmed False Flag Operations and How to Spot Them in the Future. July 14, 2015 | ANTIMEDIA Sebastian Swift July 14, 2015.

5 Confirmed False Flag Operations and How to Spot Them in the Future - Where the Middle Ages Begin. An Introduction to the Mechanical Arts in the Middle Ages - Walton. Suicide or accident - self-killing in medieval England. A medieval attitude to suicide. I had always thought that suicide was made illegal in medieval times due to religious disapproval until suicidal people were finally freed from the risk of prosecution by the 1961 Suicide Act.

A medieval attitude to suicide

It turns out the history is a little more nuanced, as noted in this 1904 article from the Columbia Law Review entitled “Is Suicide Murder?” That explores the rather convoluted legal approach to suicide in centuries past. In the UK, the legal status of suicide was first mentioned in a landmark 13th Century legal document attributed to Henry de Bracton. But contrary to popular belief about medieval attitudes, suicide by ‘insane’ people was not considered a crime and was entirely blame free. Suicide by people who were motivated by “weariness of life or impatience of pain” received only a light punishment (their goods were forfeited but their family could still inherit their lands).

Shedding Light on Dark Legends: The True Story of the Inquisition - Those Catholic Men Inc. As members of a 2,000 year old church, we often find ourselves apologizing for mistakes of the past.

Shedding Light on Dark Legends: The True Story of the Inquisition - Those Catholic Men Inc.

For example, how often do we find ourselves apologizing for the Inquisition? Don’t worry, we want to say, we’re not like that anymore. We see the inquisitors as awkward uncles at family reunions; we distance ourselves from them. We accept the story told to us by those who do not always have the Church’s best interest in mind. When confronted with accusations about the Inquisition, we acquiesce. Five Medieval Chronicles that you can read translated online.

Page from the Nuremberg Chronicle We have come across many translated medieval sources through our online wanderings.

Five Medieval Chronicles that you can read translated online

Most medievalists will know about the larger databases of texts, such as the Internet Medieval Sourcebook and De Re Militari. However, there are a lot of sources that are not widely known, including these five chronicles from the Middle Ages. Cassiodorus’ Chronicle Cassiodorus, the 6th-century Roman statesman and administrator for the Ostrogothic Kingdom, is also considered to be one of the most important writers of the early Middle Ages. Were the Crusades holy wars? Daniel Curtis - Humanities. Societies in past and present are regularly confronted with major hazards, which sometimes have disastrous effects. Some societies are successful in preventing these effects and buffering threats, or they recover quickly, while others prove highly vulnerable. Why is this? Increasingly it is clear that disasters are not merely natural events, and also that wealth and technology alone are not adequate to prevent them.

Rather, hazards and disasters are social occurrences as well, and they form a tough test for the organizational capacities of a society, both in mitigation and recovery. Early Lay Dominicans on Livestream. How far were the Military Orders responsible for the results of the Third Crusade? By Jacob Deacon Although failing in its ultimate aim to recapture Jerusalem the Third Crusade still met with several successes. With Cyprus, Acre, and Tyre under Christian control there existed `a series of genuine bridgeheads` with the potential to greatly benefit future Crusades.[1] Furthermore, when one also considers the death of Saladin shortly after the expedition, it is likely that the Third Crusade made a tremendous contribution to the immediate survival of the Crusader States.[2] In order to assess how responsible the Military Orders were for the results of the Third Crusade this article will be structured by the analysis of three key areas in which they played a part; the siege of Acre, the march to Jaffa and their other military contributions, and their role as councillors to King Richard I of England.

However the Military Orders, the Templars in particular, also met with several setbacks during the siege. Bibliography Primary Sources Secondary Sources. Top 10 Medical Advances from the Middle Ages. Medieval medicine has often been portrayed as a time when physicians were ignorant and health care remained the stuff of superstitions and quackery. However, a closer look reveals that were many ways in which medical knowledge and care improved during the Middle Ages.

Here are our top ten medical advances: 1. Hospitals. When the Pope Ordered the Death of Adolf Hitler. In 1939, the pope ordered the death of Adolf Hitler. Church of Spies by Mark Riebling tells the gripping history of the Vatican’s covert operations during World War II. A military plot had formed in Germany to depose the Führer, but there was a sticking point: what might happen to that country after Hitler was no more. The Corruption of the Papal Court and the Roots of Modern Liberalism. By Ludwig von Pastor. Back to the source - Historical European Martial Arts documentary. ISIS: What the “Do-Nothing” West Is Doing. What Is It Like To Be A Mujahedeen? – waka waka waka. Bureaucracy Keeps Doing Its Thing. On the weekend, The New York Times ran an interesting story about how U.S. A General Writes the First After-Action Report on the Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq: Why We Lost. Former Defense Secretary Robert Gates’ book sparked a firestorm upon its release in January, although you would never have predicted it by its humdrum title: Duty.

But recently retired Army lieutenant general Daniel Bolger, who played key roles in Afghanistan and Iraq in his 35-year career, wasn’t coy when it came time to titling his upcoming book Why We Lost. Bureaucracy Does Its Thing: Institutional Constraints on U.S.-GVN Performance in Vietnam. An analysis of the impact of institutional factors on the U.S. /GVN response in Vietnam. Essentially both governments attempted to handle an atypical conflict situation by means of institutions designed for other purposes. Gregorian Reform of the Calendar. The Western Calendar - 'Intolerabilis, Horribilis, et Derisbilis' - Four Centuries of Discontent. Can Florence in the Quatrocento Help Shape Tax Policy Today?

Calkins can florence in the quatrocento article reprint ttl 14fall p239.authcheckdam. Neither Cursed Nor Possessed. RAM Roman Army Structure. THE HISTORY OF THE SECOND AMENDMENT. [ Back | Home ] [Copyright © 1994 Valparaiso Univ. Law Review. Originally published as 28 Val. L. What's New in Scandinavian Rune Stones - Embracing Death, Celebrating Life: Reflections on the Concept of Martyrdom in the Order of the Knights Templar - Medieval Queens and Queenship: the Present Status of Research in Income and Power - Medieval Jews on Christianity. MEDIEVAL JEWS ON CHRISTIANITY The problem. Hastings: An Unusual Battle - GLOBAL MIDDLE AGES. Monuments to Liberty. Embracing Death, Celebrating Life: Reflections on the Concept of Martyrdom in the Order of the Knights Templar -

How America Double-Crossed Russia and Shamed the West. Historian Says Don't 'Sanitize' How Our Government Created Ghettos. Catholic Sources and the Declaration of Independence. Hellenes and Romans in Ancient China (240 BC – 1398 AD) Fortnight For Freedom: The Catholic Roots of the Declaration of Independence. Philippi Collection - Headware. James Otis, Jr. What Men Complained About Women 50 and 100 Years Ago. Middle Age Architecture: How the great cathedrals were built - Documentary. Saturday Scholar Series: The Unintended Reformation - Brad S. Gregory 11.3.2012 (video) Did the Enlightenment cause a global decline in violence?

9 Things You Should Know About Martin Luther King, Jr. - The Gospel Coalition. Be Amazed By This Two-Minute Clip About Cathedrals! U.S. Soldier Survives Taliban Machine Gun Fire During Firefight (video) Ten Reasons Why Shakespeare Was Catholic. Enumerating the Battles, Skirmishes, and Naval Actions at the Siege of Acre. …for the latest research, analysis and products on Biblical Archaeology. Defenders of the Faith: Augustine, Aquinas, and the Evolution of Medieval Just War Theory - Everyone Expects the Spanish Inquisition - The Imaginative Conservative. Medieval Warfare and the Value of a Human Life - Eight Videos about Beowulf. Jimmy Carter’s Legacy. Human Rights in the Abstract versus “Shameful and Indefensible Foreign Policy Positions”

Catholic World Report - Global Church news and views. The Dark Age Myth: An Atheist Reviews “God’s Philosophers” How to Gird Up Your Loins: An Illustrated Guide. Who Burned the Witches? Antonio (Antonino) Pierozzi de Florencia, Santo. 6 Forgotten Places, Rediscovered. Before the Dawn: Monks and the Night in Late Antiquity and Early Medieval Europe. Building skyscrapers on Chicago's swampy soil. The Rise of a Tax State: Portugal, 1367-1401. THE GREAT CHARTER AT 800 WHY IT STILL MATTERS.